Journal Article

Both K-ras and H-ras protooncogene mutations are associated with Harderian gland tumorigenesis in B6C3F1 mice exposed to isoprene for 26 weeks.

H L Hong, T R Devereux, R L Melnick, S R Eldridge, A Greenwell, J Haseman, G A Boorman and R C Sills

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 18, issue 4, pages 783-789
Published in print April 1997 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online April 1997 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/18.4.783
Both K-ras and H-ras protooncogene mutations are associated with Harderian gland tumorigenesis in B6C3F1 mice exposed to isoprene for 26 weeks.

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Isoprene is the 2-methyl analog of 1,3-butadiene, a genotoxic and carcinogenic compound in rats and mice. Male B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 2200 or 7000 ppm isoprene by inhalation (6 h/day; 5 days/week) for 26 weeks. Following a 26-week recovery period, an increased incidence of Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms was observed at both concentrations. The present study was designed to characterize genetic alterations in the K-ras and H-ras protooncogenes in HG neoplasms. Mutations in K-ras and H-ras were identified by single-strand conformational analysis and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified DNA, isolated from paraffin-embedded sections of HG neoplasms. A higher frequency of ras mutations, in particular K-ras mutations, was detected in isoprene-induced neoplasms than in 1,3-butadiene-induced or control HG neoplasms. All of the isoprene-induced HG neoplasms exhibited activated K-ras (60%) or H-ras (40%) mutations. In contrast, ras mutations were detected in 69% of HG neoplasms from 1,3-butadiene exposed mice (14% K-ras and 55% H-ras) and in 56% of HG neoplasms obtained from control B6C3F1 mice (8% K-ras and 48% H-ras). The predominant mutations in isoprene-induced HG neoplasms, but not in previously or newly analysed 1,3-butadiene-induced HG neoplasms, consisted of A-->T transversions (CAA-->CTA) at K-ras codon 61 (15/30) and C-->A transversions (CAA-->AAA) at H-ras codon 61 (8/30). Two-thirds of the K-ras CTA mutations were detected in HG neoplasms from the 2200 ppm exposure group while one-third was present in the 7000 ppm group. Isoprene-induced HG neoplasms with K-ras or H-ras mutations had an elevated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index, compared to spontaneous HG neoplasms without ras mutations. The high frequency and specificity of the ras mutation profile suggest that ras protooncogene activation contributes to isoprene-induced HG tumorigenesis.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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