Journal Article

Molecular modeling of the conformational complexity of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE-adducted DNA using simulated annealing.

R E Kozack and E L Loechler

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 18, issue 8, pages 1585-1593
Published in print August 1997 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online August 1997 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/18.8.1585
Molecular modeling of the conformational complexity of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE-adducted DNA using simulated annealing.

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Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a potent mutagen/carcinogen, reacts with DNA following metabolism to its corresponding (+)-anti-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide [(+)-anti-B[a]PDE], giving a major adduct (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N2-dG. Evidence suggests that this adduct is responsible for most of the different kinds of mutations (e.g. G-->T, G-->A, etc.) induced by (+)-anti-B[a]PDE, raising the question of how can a single adduct cause many different kinds of mutations? One hypothesis is that different mutations are induced depending upon the conformation of this adduct when bypassed during DNA replication. If true, then it becomes imperative to explore different reasonable conformations for this adduct. Herein a simulated annealing protocol is employed to study the conformation of (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N2-dG with the B[a]P moiety in the minor groove and pointing toward the base on its 5'-side in a 5'-CGC-3' sequence context in duplex DNA. This conformation and sequence were chosen because there is a structure derived from NMR constraints for comparison. A four step procedure is followed: the adduct is docked in canonical B-DNA, after which the structure is subjected to an initial conjugate gradient minimization, followed by simulated annealing and a final conjugate gradient minimization. The quality and final energy of structures is assessed as a function of changes in six parameters, including the length of the DNA helix, the initial annealing temperature (T0), the annealing time (t), the molecular dynamics time step (tau) and two other parameters. While there is no single set of optimum parameters, reasonable low energy structures were obtained using the values t approximately 40 ps (or longer), T0 approximately 750 K and tau approximately 1.0 fs with a helix length of 7 bp. The structures that emerge all retain the basic features of the input structure, being B-DNA-like with the B[a]P moiety in the minor groove pointing toward the base on the 5'-side. However, within this broad category there are at least six subclasses of structures, of which four have lowest energy members that differ by < approximately 5 kcal/mol. The fact that a variety of distinct but related structures emerge from a single starting structure as this parameter set is varied suggests that the use of a large but manageable number of simulated annealing runs should be considered in the search for a cohort of related structures. This is especially important given that this breadth of potentially relevant structures of approximately the same energy may indeed be relevant to the hypothesis that different mutations arise from a single adduct in different conformations.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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