Journal Article

Cytochrome P450 mediated bioactivation of methyleugenol to 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol in Fischer 344 rat and human liver microsomes.

I Gardner, H Wakazono, P Bergin, I de Waziers, P Beaune, J G Kenna and J Caldwell

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 18, issue 9, pages 1775-1783
Published in print January 1997 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online January 1997 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/18.9.1775
Cytochrome P450 mediated bioactivation of methyleugenol to 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol in Fischer 344 rat and human liver microsomes.

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Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism of methyleugenol to the proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol has been investigated in vitro. Kinetic studies undertaken in liver microsomes from control male Fischer 344 rats revealed that this reaction is catalyzed by high affinity (Km of 74.9 +/- 9.0 microM, Vmax of 1.42 +/- 0.17 nmol/min/nmol P450) and low affinity (apparent Km several mM) enzymic components. Studies undertaken at low substrate concentration (20 microM) with microsomes from livers of rats treated with the enzyme inducers phenobarbital, dexamethasone, isosafrole and isoniazid indicated that a number of cytochrome P450 isozymes can catalyze the high affinity component. In control rat liver microsomes, 1'-hydroxylation of methyleugenol (assayed at 20 microM substrate) was inhibited significantly (P < 0.05) by diallylsulfide (40%), p-nitrophenol (55%), tolbutamide (30%) and alpha-naphthoflavone (25%) but not by troleandomycin, furafylline, quinine or cimetidine. These results suggested that the reaction is catalyzed by CYP 2E1 and by another as yet unidentified isozyme(s) (most probably CYP 2C6), but not by CYP 3A, CYP 1A2, CYP 2D1 or CYP 2C11. Administration of methyleugenol (0-300 mg/kg/day for 5 days) to rats in vivo caused dose-dependent auto-induction of 1'-hydroxylation of methyleugenol in vitro which could be attributed to induction of various cytochrome P450 isozymes, including CYP 2B and CYP 1A2. Consequently, high dose rodent carcinogenicity studies are likely to over-estimate the risk to human health posed by methyleugenol. The rate of 1'-hydroxylation of methyleugenol in vitro in 13 human liver samples varied markedly (by 37-fold), with the highest activities being similar to the activity evident in control rat liver microsomes. This suggests that the risk posed by dietary ingestion of methyleugenol could vary markedly in the human population.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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