Journal Article

Contribution of hydrazines-derived alkyl radicals to cytotoxicity and transformation induced in normal c-myc-overexpressing mouse fibroblasts.

M Gamberini, M R Cidade, L A Valotta, M C Armelin and L C Leite

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 19, issue 1, pages 147-155
Published in print January 1998 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online January 1998 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/19.1.147
Contribution of hydrazines-derived alkyl radicals to cytotoxicity and transformation induced in normal c-myc-overexpressing mouse fibroblasts.

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Several hydrazine derivatives (HD) tested so far have pharmacological activities, but many also have toxic side effects, including carcinogenesis. Their toxicity has been ascribed to carbocations (via formation of azoxy intermediates), alkyl radicals or reactive oxygen species. Cytotoxicity and transformation by carbocations is widely accepted, but the role of alkyl radicals is still questioned. We have investigated the cytotoxicity of HD to mouse fibroblasts in three activation systems in which enhanced alkyl radical formation is demonstrated by electron spin resonance/spin-trapping. Cytotoxicity was assayed by inhibition of [3H-methyl]thymidine uptake into DNA of Balb/c 3T3 and/or Myc 9E fibroblasts (normal Balb/c 3T3 cells over-expressing the c-myc proto-oncogene). Based on the results obtained in the cytotoxicity assays we also investigated the transforming potential of procarbazine (PCZ) and methylhydrazine (MeH) activated by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using the Myc 9E cell line, which aims at the activation of a second cooperating oncogene. Our results show that: (i) cytotoxicity of HD to mouse fibroblasts is increased by HRP activation of MeH, phenelzine and PCZ, which displayed enhanced alkyl radical formation, but not of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), which did not produce increased alkyl radical formation under these conditions; (ii) cytotoxicity of neutrophil-activated MeH (producing a 10-fold higher concentration of methyl radicals), is more pronounced than DMH; (iii) MeH and DMH activated by prolonged auto-oxidation in 24-h incubations have comparable cytotoxicity and alkyl radical formation; and (iv) PCZ and MeH activation by HRP to alkyl radicals increased the transformation induced in Myc 9E cells. Taken together, our results strongly support a role for hydrazine-derived alkyl radicals in HD-induced cytotoxicity and cell transformation.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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