Journal Article

Effect of 3-aminotriazole on anchorage independence and mutagenicity in cadmium- and lead-treated diploid human fibroblasts.

Y S Hwua and J L Yang

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 19, issue 5, pages 881-888
Published in print May 1998 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online May 1998 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/19.5.881
Effect of 3-aminotriazole on anchorage independence and mutagenicity in cadmium- and lead-treated diploid human fibroblasts.

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Cadmium and lead have been shown to induce cellular transformations and gene mutations in cultured rodent cells, as well as tumours in live animals. However, the mechanisms by which these metals cause cellular transformations and mutations in human cells have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the abilities of cadmium and lead to induce anchorage-independent transformations and hprt gene mutations in diploid human fibroblasts. Human fibroblasts were exposed to either cadmium acetate (0-60 microM) or lead acetate (0-2 mM) for 24 h. After removal of the metals, the cells were kept in exponential growth for 7 and 9 days before mutation and anchorage-independence assays were taken, respectively. Both cadmium and lead significantly induced anchorage-independent colonies in dose-dependent manners; the frequencies of anchorage-independent colonies induced by these metals were similar to those induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine at approximately equal cytotoxic dose ranges (30-10% survival). 3-Aminotriazole at non-cytotoxic dosages decreased catalase activity by >80%, and markedly enhanced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity and anchorage-independent colonies. Cadmium uptake by human fibroblasts was not affected by 3-aminotriazole co-administered with 10 microM of cadmium; whereas cadmium uptake and accumulation were enhanced 1.5-fold by 3-aminotriazole co-administered with 1-2.5 microM of cadmium. Lead-induced anchorage-independence or cytotoxicity was not affected by 3-aminotriazole co-treatment; however, 3-aminotriazole did significantly enhance lead uptake and accumulation in human fibroblasts. Neither cadmium- nor lead-induced 6-thioguanine-resistant mutation frequency in human fibroblasts. Co-administering these metals with 3-aminotriazole did not enhance mutations in human fibroblasts. These results suggest that cadmium and lead may both act as tumour promoters in diploid human fibroblasts, and that reactive oxygen species is more important in cadmium- than lead-induced cytotoxicity and anchorage-independence.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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