Journal Article

Cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and p53 expression in nickel(II) acetate-treated Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Y H Shiao, S H Lee and K S Kasprzak

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 19, issue 7, pages 1203-1207
Published in print July 1998 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online July 1998 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/19.7.1203
Cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and p53 expression in nickel(II) acetate-treated Chinese hamster ovary cells.

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Nickel(II) compounds are known human and animal carcinogens. In this study, the effects of nickel(II) acetate on cell cycle, apoptosis and p53 expression were investigated in order to unveil the elements of early cellular responses to the metal. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were grown for 72 h in Ham's F-12 medium containing 0, 40, 80, 160, 240, 320, 480 or 640 microM nickel(II) acetate. DNA fragmentation, representative of apoptosis, was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. The distribution of cells among various phases of cell cycle was determined by DNA flow cytometry. Expression of p53 protein was measured by the Western blotting technique. DNA fragmentation was detectable in cells treated with > or = 160 microM nickel(II) and its intensity increased with increasing nickel(II) concentration. The proportion of cells at S phase declined in a nickel(II) concentration-dependent manner. The decline was accompanied by an increase of cell proportion in G2/M phase and the increase became statistically significant in cells exposed to at least 480 microM nickel(II). Expression of p53 protein was not different from that in the control among samples treated with < or = 480 microM nickel(II). However, an extra fraction that migrated close to the p53 protein fraction was detected in cells treated with 640 microM nickel(II). Our findings suggest that nickel(II) modulates cellular response through effectors involved in both G2/M arrest and apoptosis regulatory pathways. The proportion of cells arrested at G2/M phase or undergoing apoptosis depends directly on nickel(II) concentration. High concentration of nickel(II) appears to up-regulate protein(s) other than the common form of p53 protein.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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