Journal Article

Proliferation, development and DNA adduct levels in the mammary gland of rats given 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and a high fat diet.

E G Snyderwine, C D Davis, H A Schut and S J Roberts-Thomson

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 19, issue 7, pages 1209-1215
Published in print July 1998 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online July 1998 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/19.7.1209
Proliferation, development and DNA adduct levels in the mammary gland of rats given 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and a high fat diet.

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2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine derived from cooked meat that is a mammary gland carcinogen in rats. A carcinogenic dose-regimen of PhIP (75 mg/kg, p.o., 10 doses, once per day) was administered to 43-day old female Sprague-Dawley rats, and the rats were then placed on a defined high fat (23.5% corn oil) or low fat (5% corn oil) diet for up to 6 weeks. At various times after carcinogen and diet, and prior to carcinogenesis, we examined the percentage of proliferating cells in terminal end bud (TEB) epithelial structures of the rat mammary gland by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining, mammary gland architecture by whole mounting, and PhIP-DNA adduct levels in mammary epithelial cells by the 32P-post-labeling assay. Immediately after dosing, the percentage of proliferating epithelial cells in TEBs was significantly higher in PhIP-treated rats than in control rats receiving vehicle only [7.5 +/- 0.9% (n = 99) versus 4.2 +/- 0.6% (n = 127), respectively]. The mammary glands of PhIP-treated rats showed a significantly lower density of alveolar buds (ABs) and a higher density of TEBs than control rats, which suggests that PhIP exposure partially inhibited the normal glandular differentiation of TEBs to ABs. After 6 weeks on the diet, proliferation in TEBs was statistically higher in rats given PhIP plus a high fat diet than in rats given vehicle plus a low fat diet. The mammary glands from rats on a high fat diet also showed a statistically higher density of TEBs when compared with rats on a low fat diet [2.08 +/- 0.34% versus 1.04 +/- 0.20%, respectively (n = 6)]. PhIP-DNA adduct levels were relatively high in mammary epithelial cells of treated rats. At 3 h after the last dose of PhIP, DNA adduct levels [relative adduct labeling (RAL) x 10(7), mean +/- SE] were 10.5 +/- 1.7 (n = 8) and 0.9 +/- 0.2 (n = 7) in epithelial cells isolated from mammary gland and in the liver, respectively. DNA adduct removal rates from the mammary gland were not different between rats on the high fat and low fat diets. Adducts were still detected after 6 weeks on either diet. Thus, events that occurred prior to neoplasia in the mammary glands of PhIP-treated rats include formation of PhIP-DNA adducts at relatively high levels, and enhanced proliferation in TEBs (putative sites of origin of mammary gland carcinomas) and partial inhibition of TEB differentiation. The high fat diet, a promoter of PhIP-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis, appeared to sustain the proliferative effect of PhIP in mammary gland TEBs at a time when PhIP-DNA adducts are still detectable. These early events may contribute to the targeting and carcinogenicity of PhIP to the mammary gland of rats.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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