Journal Article

Idoxifene derivatives are less reactive to DNA than tamoxifen derivatives, both chemically and in human and rat liver cells

Martin R. Osborne, Alan Hewer, Warren Davis, Alastair J. Strain, Adrian Keogh, Ian R. Hardcastle and David H. Phillips

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 20, issue 2, pages 293-297
Published in print February 1999 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online February 1999 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/20.2.293
Idoxifene derivatives are less reactive to DNA than tamoxifen derivatives, both chemically and in human and rat liver cells

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The drug tamoxifen shows evidence of genotoxicity, and induces liver tumours in rats. Covalent DNA adducts have been detected in the liver of rats treated with tamoxifen, and these arise through metabolism at the α-position to give an ester which reacts with DNA. (E)-1-(4-iodophenyl)-2-phenyl-1-[4-(2-pyrrolidinoethoxy)phenyl]-but-1-ene (idoxifene) is an analogue of tamoxifen in which formation of DNA adducts is greatly reduced; we could not detect any adducts in the DNA of cultured rat hepatocytes treated with 10 μM idoxifene, after analysis by the 32P-post-labelling method. The metabolite (Z)-4-(4-iodophenyl)-4-[4-(2-pyrrolidinoethoxy)phenyl]-3-phenyl-3-buten-2-ol (α-hydroxyidoxifene) gave adducts in rat hepatocytes, but far fewer than the corresponding tamoxifen metabolite. In human hepatocytes, neither idoxifene nor tamoxifen induced detectable levels of DNA adducts. We prepared the α-acetoxy ester of idoxifene as a model for the ultimate reactive metabolite formed in rat liver. It was less reactive than α-acetoxytamoxifen, as might be expected on mechanistic grounds. It reacted with DNA in the same way, to give adducts which were probably N2-alkyldeoxyguanosines, but to a lower extent. All these results indicate that idoxifene is much less genotoxic than tamoxifen, and should therefore be a safer drug.

Keywords: α-Hydroxyidoxifene, (Z)-4-(4-iodophenyl)-4-[4-(2-pyrrolidinoethoxy)phenyl]-3-phenyl-3-buten-2-ol; idoxifene, (E)-1-(4-iodophenyl)-2-phenyl-1-[4-(2-pyrrolidinoethoxy)phenyl]-but-1-ene.

Journal Article.  3691 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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