Journal Article

The peroxisome proliferator (PP) response element upstream of the human acyl CoA oxidase gene is inactive among a sample human population: significance for species differences in response to PPs

N.J. Woodyatt, K.G. Lambe, K.A. Myers, J.D. Tugwood and R.A. Roberts

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 20, issue 3, pages 369-372
Published in print March 1999 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online March 1999 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/20.3.369
The peroxisome proliferator (PP) response element upstream of the human acyl CoA oxidase gene is inactive among a sample human population: significance for species differences in response to PPs

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Peroxisome proliferators (PP) cause peroxisome proliferation, associated with rodent hepatocyte growth perturbation and hepatocarcinogenesis. However, in humans this class of non-genotoxic carcinogens does not appear to have the same adverse effects. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) mediates the effects of PPs in rodents via peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) upstream of PP-responsive genes such as acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACO). When the human ACO promoter was cloned previously, it was found to be active and to contain a consensus PPRE (–1918 AGGTCA C TGGTCA –1906). To confirm and extend those original findings, we isolated a 2 kb genomic fragment of the ACO gene promoter from a human liver biopsy and used it to create a β-galactosidase reporter gene plasmid. The human ACO promoter reporter plasmid was added to both Hepa1c1c7 and NIH 3T3 cells together with a plasmid expressing mPPARα and assessed for its ability to drive PP-mediated gene transcription. The human ACO promoter fragment was inactive, unlike the equivalent rat ACO promoter fragment used as a positive control. The PPRE within our cloned fragment of the human ACO promoter differed at three positions (5′-AGGTCA G CTGTCA-3′) from the previously published active human ACO promoter. Next, we studied the frequency of the inactive versus the active human PPRE within the human population. Using a PCR strategy, we isolated and analysed genomic DNA fragments from 22 unrelated human individuals and from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. In each case, the PPRE contained the inactive sequence. These data show that the human ACO gene promoter found in a sample human population is inactive. This may explain at the genomic level the lack of response of humans to some of the adverse effects of the PP class of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens.

Keywords: ACO, acyl coenzyme A oxidase; ApoA1, apolipoprotein A-1; CYP4A1, cytochrome p450 4A1; PP, peroxisome proliferator; PPARα, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α; PPRE, peroxisome proliferator response element; RXR, retinoid X receptor.

Journal Article.  2927 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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