Journal Article

High frequency of codon 61 K-<i>ras</i> A→T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadiene

R.C. Sills, H.L. Hong, R.L. Melnick, G.A. Boorman and T.R. Devereux

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 20, issue 4, pages 657-662
Published in print April 1999 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online April 1999 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/20.4.657
High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A→T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadiene

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Chloroprene is the 2-chloro analog of 1,3-butadiene, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. Following 2 years of inhalation exposure to 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations. The present study was designed to characterize genetic alterations in the K- and H-ras protooncogenes in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 80% of chloroprene-induced lung neoplasms (37/46) compared with only 30% in spontaneous lung neoplasms (25/82). Both K- and H-ras codon 61 A→T transversions were identified in 100% of HG neoplasms (27/27) compared with a frequency of 56% (15/27) in spontaneous HG neoplasms. The predominant mutation in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms was an A→T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This mutation has not been detected in spontaneous lung tumors of B6C3F1 mice and was identified in only 7% of spontaneous HG neoplasms. In lung neoplasms, greater percentages (80 and 71%) of A→T transversions were observed at the lower exposures (12.8 and 32 p.p.m.), respectively, compared with 18% at the high exposure. In HG neoplasms, the percentage of A→T transversions was the same at all exposure concentrations. The chloroprene-induced ras mutation spectra was similar to that seen with isoprene, where the predominant base change was an A→T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This differed from 1,3-butadiene, where K-ras codon 13 G→C transitions and H-ras codon 61 A→G transitions were the predominant mutations. The major finding of K-ras A→T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms suggests that this mutation may be important for tumor induction by this class of carcinogens.

Keywords: H & E, hematoxylin and eosin; HG, Harderian gland; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism; SSCP, single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis.

Journal Article.  4333 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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