Journal Article

Induction of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and glutaredoxin activity in mouse skin by TPA, a calcium ionophore and other tumor promoters

Sushil Kumar and Arne Holmgren

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 20, issue 9, pages 1761-1767
Published in print September 1999 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online September 1999 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/20.9.1761
Induction of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and glutaredoxin activity in mouse skin by TPA, a calcium ionophore and other tumor promoters

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We have measured the levels of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and glutaredoxin enzyme activity in mouse skin following topical application of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator and tumor promoter. The specific activity of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase in extracts from normal epidermis increased by 40 and 50%, respectively, after single or multiple application of TPA. Multiple applications (twice per week for 2 weeks) of TPA increased glutaredoxin activity by >300%. Induction of the proteins lasted several days. Other PKC activators, like 12-O-retinoylphorbol 13-acetate, mezerein, 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol and the calcium ionophore A23187, also induced all the enzyme activities. Phorbol and 4-O-methyl-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, weak activators of PKC, selectively induced the thioredoxin system only and did not influence glutaredoxin activity. Multiple applications of TPA to tumor initiated (7,12-dimethyl[a]benzanthracene-treated) skin resulted in elevated levels of both the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems when examined 6 days after the last phorbol ester treatment. Induction of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and glutaredoxin activities by TPA and calcium ionophores may play a general role in the epigenetic mechanism of tumor promotion via thiol redox control mechanisms.

Keywords: ADF, adult human T cell leukemia-derived factor; DMBA, 7,12-dimethyl[a]benzanthracene; DTNB, 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid); FA, fluocinolone acetonide; GSH, reduced glutathione; GSSG, oxidized glutathione; OAG, 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol; 4-O-MeTPA, 4-O-methyl-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate; PKC, protein kinase C; RA, retinoic acid; ROS, reactive oxygen species; RPA, 12-O-retinoylphorbol-13-acetate; TPA, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate; TPCK, tosylphenylalanine chloromethylketone; TRE, TPA-responsive element.

Journal Article.  5587 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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