Journal Article

β-Catenin mutation in rat colon tumors initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-<i>f</i>]quinoline, and the effect of post-initiation treatment with chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol

Carmen A. Blum, Meirong Xu, Gayle A. Orner, Arthur T. Fong, George S. Bailey, Gary D. Stoner, David T. Horio and Roderick H. Dashwood

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 22, issue 2, pages 315-320
Published in print February 2001 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online February 2001 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/22.2.315
β-Catenin mutation in rat colon tumors initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and the effect of post-initiation treatment with chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol

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Carcinogens 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induce colon tumors in the rat that contain mutations in β-catenin, but the pattern of mutation differs from that found in human colon cancers. In both species, mutations affect the glycogen synthase kinase-3β consensus region of β-catenin, but whereas they directly substitute critical Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites in human colon cancers, the majority of mutations cluster around Ser33 in the rat tumors. Two dietary phytochemicals, chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol, given post-initiation, shifted the pattern of β-catenin mutations in rat colon tumors induced by IQ and DMH. Specifically, 17/39 (44%) of the β-catenin mutations in groups given carcinogen plus modulator were in codons 37, 41 and 45, and substituted critical Ser/Thr residues directly, as seen in human colon cancers. None of the tumors from groups given carcinogen alone had mutations in these codons. Interestingly, many of the mutations that substituted critical Ser/Thr residues in β-catenin were from a single group given DMH and 0.001% chlorophyllin, in which a statistically significant increase in colon tumor multiplicity was observed compared with the group given DMH only. These tumors had marked over-expression of cyclin D1, c-myc and c-jun mRNA and c-Myc and c-Jun proteins were strongly elevated compared with tumors containing wild-type β-catenin. The results indicate that the pattern of β-catenin mutations in rat colon tumors can be influenced by exposure to dietary phytochemicals administered post-initiation, and that the mechanism might involve the altered expression of β-catenin/Tcf/Lef target genes.

Keywords: APC, human adenomatous polyposis coli gene; Apc, rat adenomatous polyposis coli gene; CHL, chlorophyllin; CTNNB1, human β-catenin gene; Ctnnb1, rat β-catenin gene; DMH, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine; GSK-3β, glycogen synthase kinase-3β; I3C, indole-3-carbinol; IQ, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline; LEF, lymphoid enhancer factor; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PhlP, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; SSCP, single strand conformation polymorphism; TCF, T-cell factor.

Journal Article.  4025 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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