Journal Article

Cytochrome P450 expression and related metabolism in human buccal mucosa

Martin Vondracek, Zheng Xi, Pia Larsson, Valerie Baker, Katherine Mace, Andrea Pfeifer, Hans Tjälve, M.Teresa Donato, M.José Gomez-Lechon and Roland C. Grafström

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 22, issue 3, pages 481-488
Published in print March 2001 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online March 2001 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/22.3.481
Cytochrome P450 expression and related metabolism in human buccal mucosa

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Constituents in food and fluids, tobacco chemicals and many drugs are candidates for oral absorption and oxidative metabolism. On this basis, the expression of cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYPs) and the conversion of CYP substrates were analysed in reference to buccal mucosa. A RT–PCR based analysis of human buccal tissue from 13 individuals demonstrated consistent expression of mRNA for the CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 2C, 2E1, 3A4/7 and 3A5. CYP 2D6 was expressed in six out of the 13 specimens, whereas all samples were negative for 2A6 and 2B6. Serum-free monolayer cultures of the Siman virus 40 large T-antigen-immortalized SVpgC2a and the carcinoma SqCC/Y1 buccal keratinocyte lines expressed the same CYPs as tissue except 3A4/7 and 3A5 (SVpgC2a), and 2C, 2D6 and 3A4/7 (SqCC/Y1). Dealkylation of ethoxyresorufin and methoxyresorufin in both normal and transformed cells indicated functional 1A1 and 1A2, respectively. SVpgC2a showed similar activity as normal keratinocytes for both substrates, whereas SqCC/Y1 showed about 2-fold lower 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation activities. SVpgC2a showed detectable and many-fold higher activity than the other cell types towards chlorzoxazone, a substrate for 2E1. Absent or minute catalytic activity of 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 in the various cell types was indicated by lack of detectable diclofenac, dextromethorphan and testosterone metabolism (<0.2–0.5 pmol/min/mg). Metabolic activation of the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to covalently bound adducts was indicated by autoradiographic analysis of both monolayer and organotypic cultures of SVpgC2a. In contrast, SqCC/Y1 showed lower or absent metabolic activity for these substrates. Finally, measurements of various non-reactive AFB1 metabolites indicated rates of formation <0.1 pmol/min/mg in both normal and transformed cells. The results indicate presence of several CYPs of which some may contribute to significant xenobiotic metabolism in human buccal epithelium. Notably, metabolic activation of AFB1 was not previously implicated for oral mucosa. Further, the results show that CYP-dependent metabolism can be preserved or even activated in immortalized keratinocytes. Metabolic activity in SVpgC2a under both monolayer and organotypic culture conditions suggests that this cell line may be useful to pharmaco-toxicological and carcinogenesis studies.

Keywords: AFB, aflatoxin B1; AFL, aflatoxicol; AFM1, aflatoxin M1; AFP1, aflatoxin P1; AFQ1, aflatoxin Q1; CYP, cytochrome P450; EMA, elevated amino acids; HSM, high serum medium; NNK, N-nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone; PBS, phospate-buffered saline.

Journal Article.  5545 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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