Journal Article

DNA adduct formation and mutant induction in Sprague–Dawley rats treated with tamoxifen and its derivatives

Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa, L.Patrice McDaniel-Hamilton, Robert H. Heflich, M.Matilde Marques and Frederick A. Beland

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 22, issue 8, pages 1307-1315
Published in print August 2001 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online August 2001 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI:
DNA adduct formation and mutant induction in Sprague–Dawley rats treated with tamoxifen and its derivatives

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The non-steroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen is used as an adjunct chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of all stages of breast cancer and more recently as a chemoprotective agent in women with elevated risk of developing breast cancer. While beneficial for the treatment of breast cancer, tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer. In addition, it has been shown to induce liver and endometrial tumors in rats. Tamoxifen is genotoxic in rat liver, as indicated by the formation of DNA adducts, through a metabolic pathway involving the α-hydroxylation of tamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen. Since the contribution of these α-hydroxy metabolites of tamoxifen to the induction of endometrial tumors is presently unknown, we compared the extent of DNA adduct formation in liver and selected non-hepatic tissues of female Sprague–Dawley rats treated by gavage with tamoxifen, α-hydroxytamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, α-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen and N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen, or intraperitoneal injection with tamoxifen, α-hydroxytamoxifen, 3-hydroxytamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen. In addition, spleen lymphocytes from rats treated by gavage with tamoxifen or α-hydroxytamoxifen were assayed for the induction of mutants in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) gene. The relative levels of binding in rats treated by gavage were α-hydroxytamoxifen > tamoxifen ≈N-desmethyltamoxifen ≈α-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen > N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen. In rats dosed intraperitoneally, the relative order of binding was α-hydroxytamoxifen > tamoxifen > 3-hydroxytamoxifen ≈ 4-hydroxytamoxifen. None of the compounds resulted in an increase in DNA adducts in uterus, spleen, thymus or bone marrow DNA from rats treated by gavage or in uterus DNA from rats injected intraperitoneally. Neither tamoxifen nor α-hydroxytamoxifen increased the Hprt mutant frequency in spleen T-lymphocytes. These results confirm previous observations that tamoxifen is activated to a genotoxic agent in rat liver through α-hydroxylation, and also suggest that endometrial tumors in rats do not arise from the formation of tamoxifen–DNA adducts.

Keywords: alkO, alkoxy; Ar, aryl; Bis-Tris, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)iminotris(hydroxymethyl)methane; Cquat, quaternary carbon; N-desmethyltamoxifen, (Z)-1-[4-(2-methylaminoethoxy)phenyl]-1,2-diphenylbut-1-ene; N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen, (Z)-1-[4-(2-aminoethoxy)phenyl]-1,2-diphenylbut-1-ene; EI, electron impact; ENU, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea; FAB, fast atom bombardment; 3-hydroxytamoxifen, (E)-1-[4'-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)phenyl]-1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenyl-but-1-ene; 4-hydroxytamoxifen, (Z)-1-[4-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)phenyl]-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenylbut-1-ene; α-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen, (E)-4-[4-(2-methylaminoethoxy)phenyl]-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-2-ol; α-hydroxytamoxifen, (E)-4-[4-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)phenyl]-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-2-ol; Hprt, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase; Ph, phenyl; PNK, T4 polynucleotide kinase; rHSTarat hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase a; tamoxifen, (Z)-1-[4-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)phenyl]-1,2-diphenylbut-1-ene.

Journal Article.  8229 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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