Journal Article

Dual roles of Nur77 in selective regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle by TPA and ATRA in gastric cancer cells

Qiao Wu, Su Liu, Xiao-feng Ye, Zhi-wei Huang and Wen-jin Su

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 23, issue 10, pages 1583-1592
Published in print October 2002 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online October 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.10.1583
Dual roles of Nur77 in selective regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle by TPA and ATRA in gastric cancer cells

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Nur77 is an orphan receptor. Although Nur77 affects cell proliferation and apoptosis through its capability of binding to a variety of response elements and regulating their transactivation activities, the intrinsic function of Nur77 is not yet fully understood; in particular, its regulation of apoptosis and proliferation has been characterized as cell type-dependent and agent context-dependent. In this study, Nur77 can be seen to regulate apoptosis via its expression and translocation, rather than its transactivation activity in gastric cancer cells. Nur77 was constitutively expressed in BGC-823 cells. The tetradecanoylphorbol-1,3-acetate (TPA) treatment not only resulted in up-regulation of the Nur77 mRNA level, but also led to translocation of Nur77 protein from the nucleus to the mitochondria, and caused the release of cytochrome c. This TPA-induced translocation of Nur77 was in association with the initiation of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Although all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) could not induce apoptosis in BGC-823 cells due to failure of stimulating Nur77 translocation, expression of Nur77 in the nucleus was required for cell growth inhibition by ATRA. Transfection of antisense Nur77 receptor into BGC-823 cells resulted in resistance of cell growth against ATRA inhibition, and the cells were still arrested in the S phase. Furthermore, the action of Nur77 in TPA-induced apoptosis was mediated through a protein kinase C signaling pathway, while mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways were responsible for the regulation of Nur77 mRNA expression. Taken together, the data revealed the dual functioning mechanisms of Nur77 in gastric cancer cells in response to TPA and ATRA.

Keywords: ATRA, all-trans retinoic acid; CAT, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase; CHX, cycloheximide; Cyt c, cytochrome c; DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; EGF, epidermal growth factor; LMB, leptomycin B; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MTT, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NBRE, Nur77-binding response element; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PKC, protein kinase C; RXR, retinoid×receptor; βRARE, β retinoic acid response element; TPA, tetradecanoylphorbol-1,3-acetate.

Journal Article.  7982 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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