Journal Article

Different genetic alterations in rat forestomach tumors induced by genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens

Masahiro Kaneko, Keiichirou Morimura, Takayuki Nishikawa, Hideki Wanibuchi, Nobuyasu Takada, Harushi Osugi, Hiroaki Kinoshita and Shoji Fukushima

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 23, issue 10, pages 1729-1735
Published in print October 2002 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online October 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.10.1729
Different genetic alterations in rat forestomach tumors induced by genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens

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Human beings are exposed to a multitude of carcinogens in their environment, and most cancers are considered to be chemically induced. Here we examined differences in genetic alterations in rat forestomach tumors induced by repeated exposure to a genotoxic carcinogen, N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or N-methylnitrosourethane (MNUR), and chronic treatment with a non-genotoxic carcinogen, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or caffeic acid (CA). A total of 132, 6-week-old male F344 rats were employed. Forty rats were treated with MNNG by intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg body wt once a week for 32 weeks, and 20 rats received 20 p.p.m. MNUR in their drinking water for 48 weeks. Further groups of 20 animals were administered 2% BHA or 2% CA in the diet for 104 weeks. The remaining rats were maintained without any supplement as controls. Multiple forestomach tumors were observed in all rats of the MNNG-, MNUR-, BHA- and CA-treated groups. Histopathologically, MNUR- and CA-treated groups showed almost the same pattern. On polymerase chain reaction–single strand conformation polymorphism analysis, H-ras and p53 gene mutations were observed at high and relatively low frequencies, respectively, in forestomach tumors induced by MNNG and MNUR. Most H-ras gene mutations were G→A transitions in codons 7 and 12 of exon 1. On the other hand, forestomach tumors due to the non-genotoxic carcinogens, BHA and CA, had almost no mutations of the H-ras and p53 genes. Moreover, relative overexpression of cyclin D1 and p53 was detected in forestomach tumors induced by the genotoxic carcinogens, while their non-genotoxic counterparts had a tendency to show low expression of those molecules. Mutations of the β-catenin gene were not detected in any group. The present study demonstrates that rat forestomach tumors induced by genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens have different underlying genetic alterations, even if their pathological features are similar.

Keywords: BHA, butylated hydroxyanisole; CA, caffeic acid; MNNG, N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine; MNU, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; MNUR, N-methylnitrosourethane; NMBA, N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine; PCR–SSCP, polymerase chain reaction–single strand conformation polymorphism; SCC, squamous cell carcinomas

Journal Article.  4923 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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