Journal Article

Indolo[3,2-<i>b</i>]carbazole inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in rat primary hepatocytes and acts as a potential tumor promoter

Susan Herrmann, Michel Seidelin, Hanne Cathrine Bisgaard and Ole Vang

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 23, issue 11, pages 1861-1868
Published in print November 2002 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online November 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.11.1861
Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in rat primary hepatocytes and acts as a potential tumor promoter

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Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a naturally occurring substance that shows anti-carcinogenic properties in animal models. Besides its clear anti-carcinogenic effects, some studies indicate that I3C may sometimes act as a tumor promoter. Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), which is formed in the acidic environment of the stomach after intake of I3C, has a similar structure to, and shares biological effects with, the well-known tumor promoter 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Therefore, we hypothesized that ICZ could be responsible for the potential tumor-promoting activity of I3C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ICZ on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in primary cultured rat hepatocytes co-cultured with the rat liver epithelial cell line WB-F344. Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole inhibited GJIC in the rat hepatocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Significant inhibition was observed after 8 and 12 h of treatment with 1 and 0.1 μM ICZ, respectively. Maximum GJIC inhibition (cell–cell communication only 5% of control values) was observed after 24–48 h of ICZ treatment. Continued exposure to 1 μM ICZ suppressed GJIC until ~120 h. Both ICZ and TCDD treatment reduced the Cx32 mRNA level as well as the plasma membrane Cx32 staining. Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole increased the Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 mRNA levels concurrently with an increase in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities. Maximum EROD activity and Cyp1a1 mRNA levels were observed after ~12 h, whereas Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 mRNA levels peaked after 48 h. This study shows that ICZ may possess tumor promoter activity down-regulating GJIC by mechanisms, which seem to include activation of the Ah receptor and/or Cyp1 activity. Further studies are needed in order to clarify the anticarcinogenic/carcinogenic effects of I3C and ICZ before high doses of I3C may be recommended as a dietary supplement.

Keywords: Cyp, cytochrome P-450; Cx, connexin; EROD, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase; GJIC, gap junctional intercellular communication; I3C, Indole-3-carbinol; ICZ, indolo[3,2-b]carbazole; TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo p-dioxin.

Journal Article.  5851 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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