Journal Article

Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome <i>c</i> release

Chapla Agarwal, Rana P. Singh and Rajesh Agarwal

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 23, issue 11, pages 1869-1876
Published in print November 2002 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online November 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.11.1869
Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release

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Grape seed extract (GSE), rich in the bioflavonoids commonly known as procyanidins, is one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements in the United States because of its several health benefits. Epidemiological studies show that many prostate cancer (PCA) patients use herbal extracts as dietary supplements in addition to their prescription drugs. Accordingly, in recent years, we have focused our attention on assessing the efficacy of GSE against PCA. Our studies showed that GSE inhibits growth and induces apoptotic death of human PCA cells in culture and in nude mice. Here, we performed detailed studies to define the molecular mechanism of GSE-induced apoptosis in advanced human PCA DU145 cells. GSE treatment of cells at various doses (50–200 μg/ml) for 12–72 h resulted in a moderate to strong apoptotic death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the studies assessing the apoptotic-signaling pathway induced by GSE, we observed an increase in cleaved fragments of caspases 3, 7 and 9 as well as PARP in GSE-treated cells after 48 and 72 h of treatment. Pre-treatment of cells with general caspases inhibitor, z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-FMK or caspase 3-like proteases inhibitor [z-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OMe)-FMK], almost completely (~90%) inhibited the GSE-induced apoptotic cell death. In a later case, GSE-induced caspase-3 activity was completely inhibited. Selective caspase 9 inhibitor [z-Leu-Glu(OMe)-His-Asp(OMe)-FMK] showed only partial inhibition of GSE-induced apoptosis whereas GSE-induced protease activity of caspase 9 was completely inhibited. Upstream of caspase cascade, GSE showed disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in cytochrome c release in cytosol. Together, these results suggest that GSE possibly causes mitochondrial damage leading to cytochrome c release in cytosol and activation of caspases resulting in PARP cleavage and execution of apoptotic death of human PCA DU145 cells. Furthermore, GSE-caused caspase 3-mediated apoptosis also involves other pathway(s) including caspase 9 activation.

Keywords: DEVD, Asp-Glu-Val-Asp;; Δym, mitochondrial membrane potential; FACS, fluorescence activated cell sorting; FMK, fluoromethyl-ketone; PCA, prostate cancer; GSE, grape seed extract; LEHD, Leu-Glu- His-Asp; PARP, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; PI, propidium iodide; pNA, p-nitroanilide; z, benzyloxycarbonyl; VAD, Val-Ala-Asp.

Journal Article.  6322 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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