Journal Article

Generation and characterization of p53 null transformed hepatic progenitor cells: oval cells give rise to hepatocellular carcinoma

Melissa L. Dumble, Emma J. Croager, George C.T. Yeoh and Elizabeth A Quail

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 23, issue 3, pages 435-445
Published in print March 2002 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online March 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI:
Generation and characterization of p53 null transformed hepatic progenitor cells: oval cells give rise to hepatocellular carcinoma

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Oval cells are bipotential liver stem cells able to differentiate into hepatocytes and bile duct epithelia. In normal adult liver oval cells are quiescent, existing in low numbers around the periportal region, and proliferate following severe, prolonged liver trauma. There is evidence implicating oval cells in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and hence the availability of an immortalized oval cell line would be invaluable for the study of liver cell lineage differentiation and carcinogenesis. A novel approach in the generation of cell lines is the use of the p53 knockout mouse. Absence of p53 allows a cell to cycle past the normal Hayflick limit, rendering it immortalized, although subsequent genetic alterations are thought necessary for transformation. p53 knockout mice were fed a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet, previously shown to increase oval cell numbers in wild-type mice. The oval cells were isolated by centrifugal elutriation and maintained in culture. Colonies of hepatic cells were isolated and characterized with respect to phenotype, growth characteristics and tumorigenicity. Analysis of gene expression by Northern blotting and immunocytochemistry suggests they are oval-like cells by virtue of albumin and transferrin expression, as well as the oval cell markers alpha fetoprotein, M2-pyruvate kinase and A6. Injection into athymic nude mice shows the cell lines are capable of forming tumors which phenotypically resemble hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the use of p53 null hepatic cells successfully generated immortalized and tumorigenic hepatic stem cell lines. The results presented support the idea that deleting p53 allows immortalization and contributes to the transformation of the oval-like cell lines. Further, the tumorigenic status of the cell lines is direct evidence for the participation of oval cells in the formation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords: PIL, p53 immortalized liver;; AFP, alpha fetoprotein;; PK, pyruvate kinase;; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase;; TAT, tyrosine aminotransferase;; G-6-Pase, glucose-6-phosphatase;; PAH, phenylalanine hydroxylase;; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase;; CDE, choline deficient ethionine supplemented diet.

Journal Article.  7269 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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