Journal Article

Kinetics of gene expression profiling in Swiss 3T3 cells exposed to aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke

Andreas Bosio, Constanze Knörr, Uwe Janssen, Stephan Gebel, Hans-Jürgen Haussmann and Thomas Müller

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 23, issue 5, pages 741-748
Published in print May 2002 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online May 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.5.741
Kinetics of gene expression profiling in Swiss 3T3 cells exposed to aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke

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Previous studies from different laboratories have demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) harbours a strong oxidative stress potential, which broadly impacts exposed cells. Many of these studies have been devoted to identifying differentially expressed genes in exposed cells. Emerging DNA microarray techniques provide a sophisticated tool to characterize gene expression on a more comprehensive basis. Here, we report on kinetic studies performed to characterize gene expression profiles in Swiss 3T3 cells exposed to aqueous extracts of CS (`smoke-bubbled phosphate-buffered saline') up to 24 h through glass chips containing 513 different cDNA probes. The results obtained display a distinct expression pattern of up regulated and repressed genes, which was most evident after 4–8 h of exposure. The CS-related stress response involves mainly antioxidant response genes coding for, e.g. haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), metallothionein 1/2 (MT1/2) and heat shock proteins (HSPs); genes coding for transcription factors, e.g. JunB and CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP); cell cycle-related genes, e.g. gadd34 and gadd45; and notably, genes described as mediators of an inflammatory/immune-regulatory response, e.g. st2, kc and id3. From a kinetic perspective, the stress response is characterized by the synchronized up regulation of antioxidant pathways, e.g. as reflected by the co-ordinated expression of ho-1 and ferritin. This expression pattern is obviously orchestrated by stress-responsive transcription factors, as exemplified by the early and strong expression of junB and c/ebp. Interestingly, among the 10 most up regulated genes are five which are known to counteract stress brought about by peroxynitrite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that CS induces a distinct signature of differential gene expression in exposed cells.

Keywords: C/EBP, CAAT/enhancer binding protein; CS, cigarette smoke; GADD, growth arrest and DNA damage inducible; HO-1, haem oxygenase-1; HSP, heat shock protein; IL, interleukin; MT, metallothionein; ONOO−, peroxynitrite; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; TNF, tumour necrosis factor

Journal Article.  6145 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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