Journal Article

Dietary silymarin suppresses 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced tongue carcinogenesis in male F344 rats

Yoshitame Yanaida, Hiroyuki Kohno, Koujiro Yoshida, Yoshinobu Hirose, Yasuhiro Yamada, Hideki Mori and Takuji Tanaka

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 23, issue 5, pages 787-794
Published in print May 2002 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online May 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.5.787
Dietary silymarin suppresses 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced tongue carcinogenesis in male F344 rats

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The modifying effect of dietary administration of a polyphenolic antioxidant flavonoid silymarin isolated milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertneri] on 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue tumorigenesis was investigated in male F344 rats. Based on the results in pilot studies showing that silymarin treatment together with 4-NQO significantly reduced the occurrence of tongue dysplasia and gavaged with silymarin significantly elevated the phase II detoxifying enzymes' activities in the liver and tongue, the effects of dietary feeding of silymarin on tongue carcinogenesis were investigated in a long-term experiment, where rats were initiated with 4-NQO and fed silymarin containing diets during or after 4-NQO exposure. At 5 weeks of age, all animals except those treated with silymarin alone and untreated rats were given 20 p.p.m. 4-NQO in drinking water for 8 weeks to induce tongue neoplasms. Starting 1 week before 4-NQO administration, animals were fed the experimental diets containing silymarin (100 and 500 p.p.m.) for 10 weeks, and then maintained on a basal diet for 24 weeks. Starting 1 week after the cessation of 4-NQO exposure, the experimental groups given 4-NQO and a basal diet were fed the experimental diets containing 100 or 500 p.p.m. silymarin for 24 weeks. At week 34, feeding of 500 p.p.m. silymarin during the promotion phase significantly inhibited the incidence of tongue carcinoma, when compared with 4-NQO alone group (20% versus 64%, P = 0.019). Dietary silymarin decreased the cell proliferating activity and increased apoptotic index of tongue carcinoma. The treatment with silymarin decreased the polyamine content and prostaglandin (PG) E2 level in the tongue mucosa. Thus, the results indicate that feeding of silymarin (500 p.p.m.) during the promotion phase of 4-NQO-induced rat tumorigenesis exerts chemopreventive ability against tongue squamous cell carcinoma through modification of phase II enzymes activity, cell proliferation, and/or PGE2 content.

Keywords: AA, arachidonic acid; CDNB, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; COX, cyclooxygenase; DCNB, 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene; DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; GST, glutathione S-transferase; LOX, lipoxygenase; 4-NQO, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; PCNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PG, prostaglandin; QR, quinone reductase; ROS, reactive oxygen species; ssDNA, single stranded DNA.

Journal Article.  6358 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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