Journal Article

Altered expression of G1/S regulatory genes occurs early and frequently in lung carcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-β1 heterozygous mice

Yang Kang, Laurent L. Ozbun, Jerry Angdisen, Terry W. Moody, Margaret Prentice, Bhalchandra A. Diwan and Sonia B. Jakowlew

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 23, issue 7, pages 1217-1227
Published in print July 2002 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online July 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.7.1217
Altered expression of G1/S regulatory genes occurs early and frequently in lung carcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-β1 heterozygous mice

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We developed the AJBL6 transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) heterozygous (HT) mouse by mating A/J mice with C57BL/6 TGF-β1 HT mice that shows increased carcinogen-induced lung lesions with decreased latency to examine progressive events in lung tumorigenesis. Mouse cDNA macroarrays were used to identify cell cycle genes that are differentially regulated in ethyl carbamate-induced lung adenocarcinomas compared with normal lung tissue in AJBL6 TGF-β1 HT mice using probes that were generated from tissues isolated using laser capture microdissection. While expression of the genes for cyclin D1, CDK4, and E2F1 increased in lung adenocarcinomas relative to normal lung, expression of p15Ink4b, p16Ink4a, p21Cip1, p27Kip1, p57Kip2, and pRb genes decreased in comparison. Competitive RT-PCR showed that the levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 mRNAs were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, in lung adenocarcinomas than in normal lung, while the mRNAs for p15Ink4b, p16Ink4a, p21Cip1, p27Kip1, and pRb were 3- to 4-fold lower in adenocarcinomas than in normal lung, thus validating the macroarray findings. Competitive RT-PCR of microdissected lesions also showed that the levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 mRNAs increased significantly, while the mRNAs for p15Ink4b and p27Kip1 decreased significantly as lung tumorigenesis progressed. Immunohistochemical staining for cyclin D1 and CDK4 showed staining in >80% of nuclei in adenocarcinomas compared with fewer than 20% of nuclei staining positively in normal lung. In contrast, while >60% of normal lung cells showed immunostaining for p15Ink4b, p16Ink4a, p21Cip1, p27Kip1, and pRb, staining for these proteins decreased in hyperplasias, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. These data show that multiple components of the cyclin D1/CDK4/p16Ink4a/pRb signaling pathway are frequently altered early in lung lesions of AJBL6 TGF-β1 HT mice that are induced by ethyl carbamate as a function of progressive lung carcinogenesis, suggesting that components of this pathway may be potential targets for gene therapy.

Keywords: BrdU, bromodeoxyuridine; CDK, cyclin-dependent kinase; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HT, heterozygous; LCM, laser capture microdissection; MMLV, Molony murine leukemia virus; NNK, 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; pRb, retinoblastoma protein; RT, reverse transcription; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SDS, sodium dodecyl sulfate; TGF-β RI, TGF-β type I receptor; TGF-β RII, TGF-β type II receptor; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-beta; WT, wildtype.

Journal Article.  9974 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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