Journal Article

Investigation of interaction between <i>N</i>-acetyltransferase 2 and heterocyclic amines as potential risk factors for colorectal cancer

J.H. Barrett, G. Smith, R. Waxman, N. Gooderham, T. Lightfoot, R.C. Garner, K. Augustsson, C.R. Wolf, D.T. Bishop and D. Forman

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 24, issue 2, pages 275-282
Published in print February 2003 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online February 2003 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI:
Investigation of interaction between N-acetyltransferase 2 and heterocyclic amines as potential risk factors for colorectal cancer

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  • Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics


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Fast N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) acetylators may be at increased risk of colorectal cancer through the activation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HA), which are produced by meat cooked at high temperatures and are found in cigarette smoke. A study of 500 incident colorectal cancer cases and population controls, matched for age, sex and general practitioner, was conducted in the UK to investigate this hypothesis. Usual meat intake and lifetime smoking habits were estimated using a detailed questionnaire administered by interview. Subjects also indicated how well cooked they ate their meat. Subjects were classified as fast or slow NAT2 acetylators on the basis of NAT2 genotype. Complete genotype data were available on 433 matched pairs. The risk of colorectal cancer showed a steady increase with meat intake, rising to an odds ratio of 1.51 [95% confidence interval (1.03, 2.23)] for the highest versus the lowest quartile, after adjustment for total energy intake, and this was even more pronounced for red meat [odds ratio 1.97 (1.30, 2.98)]. However, this effect was not influenced by the preference for well-done meat. Smoking was also associated with an increased risk [odds ratio 1.47 (1.10, 1.98) for ever- versus never-smokers]. In both cases and controls ∼40% of subjects were classified as fast acetylators, and the risks associated with (red) meat intake and smoking did not vary with NAT2 status. This study provides no support for the hypothesis that fast NAT2 acetylators are at increased risk of colorectal cancer, even if exposed to high levels of HA from well-cooked meat or smoking.

Keywords: FFQ, food frequency questionnaire; HA, heterocyclic amines; NAT2, N-acetyltransferase 2; SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms.

Journal Article.  7485 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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