Journal Article

Comparison of the chemopreventive efficacies of garlic powders with different alliin contents against aflatoxin B1 carcinogenicity in rats

Raymond Bergès, Marie-Hélène Siess, Ingrid Arnault, Jacques Auger, Rémi Kahane, Marie-France Pinnert, Marie-France Vernevaut and Anne-Marie le Bon

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 25, issue 10, pages 1953-1959
Published in print October 2004 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online October 2004 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgh200
Comparison of the chemopreventive efficacies of garlic powders with different alliin contents against aflatoxin B1 carcinogenicity in rats

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Garlic (Allium sativum) is well known for its beneficial effects on health and particularly for its chemopreventive potential against cancer. The present study was designed to compare the chemopreventive efficacies of several garlic powders with various levels of alliin, a precursor of active sulfur compounds. For this purpose we used the medium-term hepatocarcinogenesis protocol (resistant hepatocyte model), which allows the detection of preneoplasic foci expressing the placental form of glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) as an end-point. Rats were fed diets containing three garlic powders (5% of the diet) with various alliin contents for 3 weeks. Garlic powders were obtained from bulbs grown on soils with different levels of sulfur fertilization. During the period of garlic feeding hepatocarcinogenesis was initiated by administration of 10 i.p. injections of 0.025 mg/kg body weight aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The rats were later submitted to 2-acetylaminofluorene treatment and partial hepatectomy, and GST-P foci were detected and quantified. Consumption of diets containing garlic powders decreased the appearance and size of hepatic GST-P foci. A strong reduction was observed in rats fed garlic containing the highest level of alliin. In addition, increased alliin content of the garlic powder was associated with a proportional decrease in the number and area of preneoplastic foci. Elsewhere, garlic powder ingestion increased hepatic ethoxyresorufin deethylase, glutathione S-transferase and UDP glucuronosyl transferase activities while no modification of nifedipine oxidase activity was found. We also observed an increase in the levels of GST A5 and AFB1 aldehyde reductase. It is suggested that garlic partly exerts its anticarcinogenic effects through increasing enzymes involved in AFB1 detoxification. This study highlights the possibility of controlling the cultivation conditions to improve the chemopreventive efficacy of garlic.

Keywords: 2-AAF, 2-acetylaminofluorene; AFAR, aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase; AFB1, aflatoxin B1; AFBO, aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide; CYP, cytochrome P450; DADS, diallyl disulfide; EROD, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase; GST, glutathione S-transferase; GST-P, placental form of glutathione S-transferase; PROD, pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase; NO, nifedipine oxidase; UGT, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase

Journal Article.  5274 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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