Journal Article

Effects of supplementing a low-carotenoid diet with a tomato extract for 2 weeks on endogenous levels of DNA single strand breaks and immune functions in healthy non-smokers and smokers

Karlis Briviba, Sabine E. Kulling, Jutta Möseneder, Bernhard Watzl, Gerhard Rechkemmer and Achim Bub

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 25, issue 12, pages 2373-2378
Published in print December 2004 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online December 2004 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgh249
Effects of supplementing a low-carotenoid diet with a tomato extract for 2 weeks on endogenous levels of DNA single strand breaks and immune functions in healthy non-smokers and smokers

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Increased consumption of tomato products is associated with a decreased risk of cancer. The present study was performed to investigate whether consumption of a tomato oleoresin extract for 2 weeks can affect endogenous levels of DNA single strand breaks in peripheral blood lymphocytes in healthy non-smokers and smokers. We also assessed, the effect of the tomato oleoresin extract on various immunological functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study design was used. Over a period of 2 weeks 15 non-smokers and 12 smokers were given three tomato oleoresin extract capsules daily (each containing 4.88 mg lycopene, 0.48 mg phytoene, 0.44 mg phytofluene and 1.181 mg α-tocopherol). The control group received placebos. The baseline level of endogenous DNA damage for non-smokers was slightly (13%) and non-significantly (P = 0.44) lower than that of smokers. Placebo supplementation of non-smokers and smokers for 2 weeks did not significantly affect lycopene plasma levels or DNA damage in either group. Intervention with tomato oleoresin extract resulted in significant increases in total plasma lycopene and resulted in decreased levels of DNA strand breaks of ∼32 (non-smokers) and 39% (smokers). However, this effect was not statistically significant in either group (P = 0.09 for non-smokers and P = 0.12 for smokers). Analysis of the distribution pattern of DNA strand breaks showed a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in the number of comets in class 0 (undamaged) and a decrease in classes 1 and 2 (damaged) after the tomato oleoresin extract intervention in non-smokers. The changes in the smoker group were not statistically significant. Treatment with the tomato extract had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, interleukin (IL)-2 production and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α production, but it significantly reduced IL-4 production in smokers (P = 0.009).

Keywords: IL, interleukin; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor α

Journal Article.  4438 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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