Journal Article

Organ-selective chemoresistance in metastasis from human breast cancer cells: inhibition of apoptosis, genetic variability and microenvironment at the metastatic focus

Bin Gu, Laura España, Olga Méndez, Angels Torregrosa and Angels Sierra

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 25, issue 12, pages 2293-2301
Published in print December 2004 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online December 2004 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgh272
Organ-selective chemoresistance in metastasis from human breast cancer cells: inhibition of apoptosis, genetic variability and microenvironment at the metastatic focus

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We hypothesized that the development of the most resistant cells during metastasis is favored by anti-apoptotic proteins, leading to the acquisition of an adaptive phenotype crucial to drug resistance at the metastatic foci. In order to test it, we induced metastasis in nude mice, injecting orthotopicaly 435/Bcl-xL or 435/Neo cells, transfected previously with the luciferase gene to use it as a tumor marker, and treated them with a therapeutic dose of docetaxel. We monitored metastasis in mice by calculating tumor cell equivalents (TCEs) present in tissues. Between docetaxel-treated and non-treated 435/Bcl-xL.luc mice significant differences in the metastatic burden of lymph nodes (P = 0.02) and viscera (P = 0.02) were observed. However, treatment did not significantly decrease metastatic burden in bones (P = 0.19). Additionally, we analyzed the clonality of metastasis from lung, bone and lymph node by genomic DNA fingerprinting. Bcl-xL enhanced cell genetic instability in terms of gain and loss fractions (GF = 0.18 and LF = −0.21) when compared with the control 435/Neo (GF = 0.15 and LF = −0.14). Thus, genetic instability might be a molecular mechanism favored by Bcl-xL evolved in the selection process of breast cancer progression, which results in different genetic changes among metastases from lung, bone or lymph node, favoring organ-selective chemoresistance.

Keywords: AP-PCR, arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction; CM, conditioned medium; FBS, fetal bovine serum; GF, genetic instability in terms of gain fractions; i.m.f.p., into the mammary fat pad; LF, genetic instability in terms of loss fractions; RLUs, relative light units; RLB, reporter lysis buffer; TCEs, tumor cell equivalents

Journal Article.  7450 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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