Journal Article

Polymorphisms in glutathione <i>S</i>-transferases and non-melanoma skin cancer risk in Australian renal transplant recipients

Anthony A. Fryer, Helen M. Ramsay, Tracy J. Lovatt, Peter W. Jones, Carmel M. Hawley, David L. Nicol, Richard C. Strange and Paul N. Harden

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 26, issue 1, pages 185-191
Published in print January 2005 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online January 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI:
Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases and non-melanoma skin cancer risk in Australian renal transplant recipients

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  • Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics


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Caucasian renal transplant recipients from Queensland, Australia have the highest non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk worldwide. Although ultraviolet light (UVR) exposure is critical, genetic factors also appear important. We and others have shown that polymorphism in the glutathione S-transferases (GST) is associated with NMSC in UK recipients. However, the effect of high UVR exposure and differences in immunosuppressive regimen on these associations is unknown. In this study, we examined allelism in GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTT1 and GSTP1 in 361 Queensland renal transplant recipients. Data on squamous (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), UVR/tobacco exposure and genotype were obtained. Associations with both NMSC risk and numbers were examined using logistic and negative binomial regression, respectively. In the total group, GSTM1 AB [P = 0.049, rate ratio (RR) = 0.23] and GSTM3 AA (P = 0.015, RR = 0.50) were associated with fewer SCC. Recipients were then stratified by prednisolone dose (≤7 versus >7 mg/day). In the low-dose group, GSTT1 null (P = 0.006, RR = 0.20) and GSTP1 Val/Val (P = 0.021, RR = 0.20) were associated with SCC numbers. In contrast, in the high-dose group, GSTM1 AB (P = 0.009, RR = 0.05), GSTM3 AB (P = 0.042, RR = 2.29) and BB (P = 0.014, RR = 5.31) and GSTP1 Val/Val (P = 0.036, RR = 2.98) were associated with SCC numbers. GSTM1 AB (P = 0.016) and GSTP1 Val/Val (P = 0.046) were also associated with fewer BCC in this group. GSTP1 associations were strongest in recipients with lower UVR/tobacco exposure. The data confirm our UK findings, suggesting that protection against UVR-induced oxidative stress is important in NMSC development in recipients, but that this effect depends on the immunosuppressant regimen.

Keywords: BCC, basal cell carcinoma; GST, glutathione S-transferase; HR, hazard ratio; NMSC, non-melanoma skin cancer; OR, odds ratio; RR, rate ratio; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; UVR, ultraviolet radiation

Journal Article.  6032 words. 

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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