Journal Article

Comprehensive expression analysis of retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors in non-small cell lung cancer: implications for tumor development and prognosis

Jan Brabender, Ralf Metzger, Dennis Salonga, Kathleen D. Danenberg, Peter V. Danenberg, Arnulf H. Hölscher and Paul M. Schneider

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 26, issue 3, pages 525-530
Published in print March 2005 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online March 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi006
Comprehensive expression analysis of retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors in non-small cell lung cancer: implications for tumor development and prognosis

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Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are important in regulating the development, growth and differentiation of cells and have inhibitory effects on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth. A comprehensive analysis of all RAR and RXR subtypes mRNA expression in a large series of patients with NSCLC and their role in the development and progression of this disease is lacking. Using a quantitative real-time RT–PCR method, we analyzed the mRNA expression of all retinoid receptor subtypes in tumor and matching normal-appearing tissues of 88 patients with NSCLC. Gene expression in tumor tissues was detected with the following frequencies: RARα 100%, RARβ 94%, RARγ 94%, RXRα 100%, RXRβ 100% and RXRγ 92%. Levels of mRNA expression in tumor tissues compared with matching normal-appearing tissue were equal or reduced with the following frequencies: RARα 76.1%, RARβ 59.1%, RARγ 39.8%, RXRα 67.1%, RXRβ 54.5% and RXRγ 88.6%, and were significantly associated with any one other subtype. The probability of survival was significantly different among patients with low gene expression in no or any two subtypes, any three or four subtypes or any five or six subtypes (P = 0.004, log rank test). Multivariate analysis confirmed low gene expression status as a significant independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P = 0.015). Our results show that decreased expression of all RAR and RXR receptor subtypes is a frequent event in NSCLC. Widely co-regulated down-regulation of expression of all retinoid subclasses suggests a fundamental dysregulation of the retinoid pathway in this cancer. Quantitation of RAR and RXR mRNA expression levels in tumor tissue is a candidate prognostic marker and surrogate biomarker for chemopreventive trials in NSCLC.

Keywords: LG, low gene expression; LOH, loss of heterozygosity; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; RARs, retinoic acid receptors; RXRs, retinoid X receptors

Journal Article.  3306 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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