Journal Article

Growth inhibition of carcinogen-transformed MCF-12F breast epithelial cells and hormone-sensitive BT-474 breast cancer cells by 1α-hydroxyvitamin D5

Erum A. Hussain-Hakimjee, Xinjian Peng, Rajeshwari R. Mehta and Rajendra G. Mehta

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 27, issue 3, pages 551-559
Published in print March 2006 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online September 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi231
Growth inhibition of carcinogen-transformed MCF-12F breast epithelial cells and hormone-sensitive BT-474 breast cancer cells by 1α-hydroxyvitamin D5

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Several studies have established the active form of vitamin D3 as an effective tumor-suppressing agent; however, its antitumor activity is achieved at doses that are hypercalcemic in vivo. Therefore, less calcemic vitamin D3 analog, 1α-hydroxy-24-ethyl-cholecalciferol (1α[OH]D5), was evaluated for its potential use in breast cancer chemoprevention. Previously, 1α(OH)D5 showed anticarcinogenic activity in several in vivo and in vitro models. However, its effects on growth of normal tissue were not known. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 1α(OH)D5 on the growth of normal mouse mammary gland and normal-like human breast epithelial MCF-12F cells and to compare these effects with carcinogen-transformed MCF-12F and breast cancer cells. No significant difference was observed in the growth or morphology of cultured mouse mammary gland and MCF-12F cells in the presence of 1α(OH)D5. However, the transformed MCF-12F cells underwent growth inhibition (40–60%, P < 0.05) upon 1α(OH)D5 treatment as determined by cell viability assays. Cell cycle analysis showed marked increase (50%) in G-1 phase for cells treated with 1α(OH)D5 compared with the controls. Moreover, the percentage of cells in the synthesis (S) phase of cell cycle was decreased by 70% in transformed MCF-12F, BT-474 and MCF-7 cells. The growth arrest was preceded by an increase in expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins p21Waf-1 and p27Kip-1. In addition, differential expression studies of parent and transformed MCF-12F cell lines using microarrays showed that prohibitin mRNA was increased 4-fold in the transformed cells. These results indicate that the growth inhibitory effect of 1α(OH)D5 was achieved in both carcinogen-transformed MCF-12F and breast cancer cells at a dose that was non-inhibitory in normal-like breast epithelial cells.

Keywords: 1α[OH]D5, 1α-hydroxy-24-ethyl-cholecalciferol; ER, estrogen receptor; DMBA, dimethylbenz(a)anthracene; MNU, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; MTT, 3,[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; VDR, vitamin D3 receptor; VDRKO, VDR knockout

Journal Article.  7157 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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