Journal Article

N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide and nitric oxide pro-drugs exhibit apoptotic and anti-invasive effects against bone metastatic breast cancer cells

Ann-Marie Simeone, Stefano Colella, Ralf Krahe, Marcella M. Johnson, Edna Mora and Ana M. Tari

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 27, issue 3, pages 568-577
Published in print March 2006 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online September 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi233
N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide and nitric oxide pro-drugs exhibit apoptotic and anti-invasive effects against bone metastatic breast cancer cells

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Breast cancer most frequently metastasizes to bone causing decreased quality of life and morbidity. Since current treatments are palliative, strategies to prevent bone metastases in breast cancer patients are required. There is substantial evidence indicating that high levels of nitric oxide (NO) suppress tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. We hypothesize that agents that produce high concentrations of NO could prevent the spread of breast cancer to bone. We previously demonstrated that the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) produces high levels of NO via the induction of NO synthases. NO pro-drugs are designed to produce large amounts of NO without inducing NO synthases but upon metabolism by their intracellular targets. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of 4-HPR and an NO pro-drug, diethylamineNONOate/AM (NONO-AM), in inhibiting the growth and invasiveness of bone metastatic breast cancer cells. Parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were resistant to 4-HPR-induced apoptosis at clinically relevant doses, whereas 4-HPR-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231/F10 bone metastatic breast cancer cells. Unlike 4-HPR, NONO-AM induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in both parental MDA-MB-231 cells and F10 cells. The bone metastatic F10 cells were more sensitive to the anti-invasive effects of 4-HPR and NONO-AM than were MDA-MB-231 cells. Although suppression of matrix metalloprotease-9 activity may be one mechanism by which 4-HPR decreases the invasion of F10 cells, it does not appear to be the anti-invasion mechanism of NONO-AM. These in vitro results suggest that 4-HPR and NO pro-drugs may be effective chemopreventive agents against bone metastatic breast cancer.

Keywords: DMEM/F12, Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; FBS, fetal bovine serum; MMP, matrix metalloprotease; 4-HPR, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide; NO, nitric oxide; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NONO-AM, diethylamine NONOate/AM

Journal Article.  6018 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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