Journal Article

Meloxicam inhibits osteosarcoma growth, invasiveness and metastasis by COX-2-dependent and independent routes

Takahiro Naruse, Yoshihiro Nishida, Kozo Hosono and Naoki Ishiguro

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 27, issue 3, pages 584-592
Published in print March 2006 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online October 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi240
Meloxicam inhibits osteosarcoma growth, invasiveness and metastasis by COX-2-dependent and independent routes

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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors exert antitumor activity via COX-2-dependent and independent pathways. We wished to evaluate the antitumor activity of meloxicam, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, in osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, and determine whether its antitumor effect is COX-2-dependent. COX-2 expression in the osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63, HOS and U2-OS was determined by real-time RT–PCR and western blotting. Subsequently, the inhibitory effects of meloxicam on osteosarcoma cell growth and invasiveness were assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and matrigel invasion assays, respectively. Apoptotic activity was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining and semi-quantification of Bax and Bcl-2 expression by real time RT–PCR and western blotting. Prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production in the presence and absence of meloxicam was analyzed by enzyme immunoassay, and to determine whether the effects of meloxicam are COX-2-dependent or independent, PGE2 was added to see if it reversed the effects of meloxicam. In addition, the effects of meloxicam on tumor growth and metastasis were evaluated in an in vivo mouse model using grafted LM-8 mouse osteosarcoma cells, together with immunohistochemical analysis for vascular endothelial growth factor in lung metastatic lesion. Meloxicam inhibited PGE2 production, proliferation and invasiveness especially in MG-63 cells, which express relatively high levels of COX-2. Only high concentrations of meloxicam caused apoptosis and upregulated Bax mRNA and protein in MG-63 cell culture. In contrast, meloxicam did not induce apoptosis in HOS and U2-OS cells, expressing relatively low levels of COX-2. Exogenous PGE2 reduced the effects of meloxicam on cell viability and invasiveness, but not its effect on Bax mRNA. In vivo, high doses of meloxicam suppressed LM-8 tumor growth and lung metastasis. Meloxicam, may have both COX-2-dependent and independent inhibitory actions on osteosarcoma. Its effects are more prominent in osteosarcoma cells that have relatively high levels of COX-2.

Keywords: BSA, bovine serum albumin; COX, cyclooxygenase; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium; EIA, enzyme immunoassay; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; RT–PCR, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor

Journal Article.  6244 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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