Journal Article

Attenuation of BPDE-induced p53 accumulation by TPA is associated with a decrease in stability and phosphorylation of p53 and downregulation of NFκB activation: role of p38 MAP kinase

Jagat J. Mukherjee and Harish C. Sikka

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 27, issue 3, pages 631-638
Published in print March 2006 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online October 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi247
Attenuation of BPDE-induced p53 accumulation by TPA is associated with a decrease in stability and phosphorylation of p53 and downregulation of NFκB activation: role of p38 MAP kinase

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DNA damage caused by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or other polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAHs) induce p53 protein as a protective measure to eliminate the possibility of mutagenic fixation of the DNA damage. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) inhibits p53 response induced by B[a]P and other DNA-damaging agents and may cause tumor promotion. The molecular mechanism of attenuation of B[a]P-induced p53 response by TPA is not known. We investigated the effect of TPA on p53 response in (±)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-treated mouse epidermal JB6(P+) Cl 41 cells. BPDE treatment induced p53 accumulation which was attenuated significantly by TPA. Cells treated with BPDE and TPA showed increased ratio of Mdm2 to p53 proteins in p53 immunoprecipitate and decreased p53 life span compared to BPDE-treated cells indicating p53 destabilization by TPA. TPA also inhibited BPDE-induced p53 phosphorylation at serine15. Activation of both ERKs and p38 MAPK by BPDE and attenuation of BPDE-induced p53 accumulation by U0126 or SB202190, specific inhibitor of MEK1/2 or p38 MAPK, indicate the role of ERKs and p38 MAPK in p53 accumulation. Interestingly, TPA potentiated BPDE-induced activation of ERKs whereas p38 MAPK activation was significantly inhibited by TPA, suggesting that inhibition of p38 MAPK is involved in p53 attenuation by TPA. Furthermore, SB202190 treatment caused decreased p53 stability and inhibition of phosphorylation of p53 at serine15 in BPDE-treated cells. We also observed that TPA or SB202190 attenuated BPDE-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation in JB6 Cl 41 cells harboring NFκB reporter plasmid. To our knowledge this is the first report that TPA inhibits chemical carcinogen-induced NFκB activation. Interference of TPA with BPDE-induced NFκB activation implicates abrogation of p53 function which has been discussed. Overall, our data suggest that abrogation of BPDE-induced p53 response and of NFκB activation by TPA is mediated by impairment of the signaling pathway involving p38 MAPK.

Keywords: B[a]P, benzo[a]pyrene; BPDE, (±)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide; ERK, extracellular signal related kinase; MAPK, mitogen activated protein kinase; Mdm2, mouse double minute 2; MEK, mitogen activated protein kinase kinase; NFκB, nuclear factor kappa B; PAH, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon; TPA, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate; PKC, protein kinase C

Journal Article.  6540 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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