Journal Article

ERK and JNK signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of activator protein 1 and cell death elicited by three isothiocyanates in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells

Changjiang Xu, Guoxiang Shen, Xiaoling Yuan, Jung-hwan Kim, Avantika Gopalkrishnan, Young-Sam Keum, Sujit Nair and Ah-Ng Tony Kong

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 27, issue 3, pages 437-445
Published in print March 2006 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online November 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi251
ERK and JNK signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of activator protein 1 and cell death elicited by three isothiocyanates in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells

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Many isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as sulforaphane (SFN), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are highly effectively in chemoprevention or reduction of the risk of cancer and possess antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. The activator protein 1 (AP-1) and MAPK signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy due to their involvement in tumor cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and survival. In the present study, we determined the effects of SFN, PEITC and AITC on AP-1 activation, and investigated the roles of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways in the regulation of AP-1 activation and cell death elicited by these ITCs in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. SFN, PEITC and AITC each induced AP-1 activity potently and caused a significant elevation in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, Elk-1 and c-Jun. Transfection with ERK2 and upstream kinase DNEE-MEK1 activated AP-1 activity, and transfection with dominant-negative mutant ERK2 (dnERK2) potently decreased AP-1 activation induced by SFN, PEITC and AITC. Transfection with JNK1 and upstream kinase MKK7 activated AP-1 activity, and transfection with dominant-negative mutant JNK1-APF significantly attenuated AP-1 activation induced by SFN, PEITC and AITC. Pretreatment with MEK1-ERK inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 substantially attenuated the decrease in cell viability induced by SFN, PEITC and AITC. Transfection with dnERK2 and JNK1-APF significantly reversed the decrease of Bcl-2 expression elicited by these ITCs. Furthermore, transfection with dnERK2 and JNK1-APF blocked the apoptosis induced by these ITCs in PC-3 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that the activation of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways is important for transcriptional activity of AP-1 and is involved in the regulation of cell death elicited by ITCs in PC-3 cells.

Keywords: ITC, isothiocyanate; SFN, sulforaphane; PEITC, phenethyl isothiocyanate; AITC, allyl isothiocyanate; AP-1, activator protein 1; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; TPA, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

Journal Article.  6401 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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