Journal Article

Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit 12-<i>O</i>-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-caused skin tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethylbenz[<i>a</i>]anthracene-initiated mouse skin, which is associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses

Syed M. Meeran, Mudit Vaid, Thejass Punathil and Santosh K. Katiyar

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 30, issue 3, pages 520-528
Published in print March 2009 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online January 2009 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgp019
Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-caused skin tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated mouse skin, which is associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses

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Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) possess anticarcinogenic activities. Here, we assessed the effects of dietary GSPs on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin. Administration of dietary GSPs (0.2 and 0.5%, wt/wt) supplemented with control AIN76A diet resulted in significant inhibition of TPA-induced skin tumor promotion in C3H/HeN mice. The mice treated with GSPs developed a significantly lower tumor burden in terms of the percentage of mice with tumors (P < 0.05), total number of tumors per group (P < 0.01, n = 20) and total tumor volume per tumor-bearing mouse (P < 0.01–0.001) as compared with the mice that received the control diet. GSPs also delayed the malignant progression of papillomas into carcinomas. As TPA-induced inflammatory responses are used routinely as markers of skin tumor promotion, we assessed the effect of GSPs on biomarkers of TPA-induced inflammation. Immunohistochemical analysis and western blotting revealed that GSPs significantly inhibited expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and markers of proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1) in both the DMBA-initiated/TPA-promoted mouse skin and skin tumors. In short-term experiments in which the mouse skin was treated with acute or multiple TPA applications, we found that dietary GSPs inhibited TPA-induced edema, hyperplasia, leukocytes infiltration, myeloperoxidase, COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in the mouse skin. The inhibitory effect of GSPs was also observed against other structurally different skin tumor promoter-induced inflammation in the skin. Together, our results show that dietary GSPs inhibit chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin and that the inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by GSPs is associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses caused by tumor promoters.

Journal Article.  6256 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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