Journal Article

Modulation of key regulators of mitosis linked to chromosomal instability is an early event in ochratoxin A carcinogenicity

Melanie Adler, Katja Müller, Eva Rached, Wolfgang Dekant and Angela Mally

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 30, issue 4, pages 711-719
Published in print April 2009 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online February 2009 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgp049
Modulation of key regulators of mitosis linked to chromosomal instability is an early event in ochratoxin A carcinogenicity

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Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent renal carcinogen, but little is known regarding the mechanism of OTA carcinogenicity. Early histopathological alterations induced by OTA in rat kidney include single cell death, stimulation of cell proliferation and prominent karyomegaly indicative of blocked nuclear division during mitosis. Based on these observations, it has been suggested that disruption of mitosis by OTA may be the principal cause of cell death and subsequent trigger for cell proliferation to compensate for cell loss. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism of OTA toxicity, we used targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays to investigate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control and mitosis in kidneys of male F344 rats treated with 0, 21, 70 and 210 μg/kg body wt OTA for up to 90 days. Treatment with OTA resulted in overexpression of key regulators of mitosis, including the mitotic protein kinases Polo-like kinase 1, Aurora B and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1Cdc2), several cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, topoisomerase II and survivin. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed upregulation of Cdk1, p21WAF1/CIP1, topoisomerase II and survivin in S3 proximal tubule cells, from which OTA-induced tumors in rats arise, and demonstrated increased phosphorylation of histone H3, a target of Aurora B. Importantly, many of the genes found to be deregulated in response to OTA have been linked to chromosomal instability and malignant transformation, supporting the hypothesis that aberrant mitosis, resulting in blocked or asymmetric cell division, accompanied by an increased risk of aneuploidy acquisition, may play a critical role in OTA carcinogenicity.

Journal Article.  7184 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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