Journal Article

Impact of smoking on lung cancer risk is stronger in those with the homozygous aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 null allele in a Japanese population

Ji Young Park, Keitaro Matsuo, Takeshi Suzuki, Hidemi Ito, Satoyo Hosono, Takakazu Kawase, Miki Watanabe, Isao Oze, Toyoaki Hida, Yasushi Yatabe, Tetsuya Mitsudomi, Toshiro Takezaki, Kazuo Tajima and Hideo Tanaka

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 31, issue 4, pages 660-665
Published in print April 2010 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online January 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgq021
Impact of smoking on lung cancer risk is stronger in those with the homozygous aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 null allele in a Japanese population

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The main lifestyle contributor to acetaldehyde exposure is the drinking of alcoholic beverages, but tobacco smoke also makes some contribution. Although acetaldehyde is associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk, in accordance with genetically determined acetaldehyde metabolism, it is unclear whether lung cancer, a representative smoking-related cancer, is associated with acetaldehyde or genes impacting its metabolism. We conducted a case–control study to examine possible interaction between smoking and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys polymorphism (rs671) on the risk of lung cancer in Japanese. Subjects were 718 lung cancer cases and 1416 non-cancer controls enrolled in the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center. Lifestyle factors, including smoking, were determined by self-administered questionnaire. We applied pack-years (PY; categorized into five levels: never, <15, <30, <45 and ≥45) as a marker of cumulative exposure to smoking. The impact of smoking, ALDH2 genotype, and their interaction on lung cancer risk were assessed by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval adjusted for potential confounders. Adjusted ORs for PY <15, <30, <45 and ≥45 relative to never smokers among those with Glu/Glu or Glu/Lys were 1.39, 1.80, 3.44 and 6.25, respectively (P-trend = 1.4 × 10−30). In contrast, ORs among Lys/Lys were 1.01, 10.2, 11.4 and 23.2, respectively (P-trend = 2.6 × 10−7). Interaction between ALDH2 genotype (Glu/Glu + Glu/Lys versus Lys/Lys) and cumulative smoking dose was statistically significant (P = 0.036) and was consistently observed in the analysis among never-drinkers (interaction P = 0.041). These results suggest that ALDH2 Lys/Lys, a null enzyme activity genotype, modifies the impact of smoking on the risk of lung cancer.

Journal Article.  3508 words. 

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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