Journal Article

Involvement of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α) in promotion of rat lung and mammary carcinogenic activity of nanoscale titanium dioxide particles administered by intra-pulmonary spraying

Jiegou Xu, Mitsuru Futakuchi, Masaaki Iigo, Katsumi Fukamachi, David B. Alexander, Hideo Shimizu, Yuto Sakai, Seiko Tamano, Fumio Furukawa, Tadashi Uchino, Hiroshi Tokunaga, Tetsuji Nishimura, Akihiko Hirose, Jun Kanno and Hiroyuki Tsuda

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 31, issue 5, pages 927-935
Published in print May 2010 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online February 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgq029
Involvement of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α) in promotion of rat lung and mammary carcinogenic activity of nanoscale titanium dioxide particles administered by intra-pulmonary spraying

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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is evaluated by World Health Organization/International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Group 2B carcinogen. The present study was conducted to detect carcinogenic activity of nanoscale TiO2 administered by a novel intrapulmonary spraying (IPS)-initiation–promotion protocol in the rat lung. Female human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rat (Hras128) transgenic rats were treated first with N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (DHPN) in the drinking water and then with TiO2 (rutile type, mean diameter 20 nm, without coating) by IPS. TiO2 treatment significantly increased the multiplicity of DHPN-induced alveolar cell hyperplasias and adenomas in the lung, and the multiplicity of mammary adenocarcinomas, confirming the effectiveness of the IPS-initiation–promotion protocol. TiO2 aggregates were localized exclusively in alveolar macrophages and had a mean diameter of 107.4 nm. To investigate the underlying mechanism of its carcinogenic effects, TiO2 was administered to wild-type rats by IPS five times over 9 days. TiO2 treatment significantly increased 8-hydroxydeoxy guanosine level, superoxide dismutase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α) expression in the lung. MIP1α, detected in the cytoplasm of TiO2-laden alveolar macrophages in vivo and in the media of rat primary alveolar macrophages treated with TiO2 in vitro, enhanced proliferation of human lung cancer cells. Furthermore, MIP1α, also detected in the sera and mammary adenocarcinomas of TiO2-treated Hras128 rats, enhanced proliferation of rat mammary carcinoma cells. These data indicate that secreted MIP1α from TiO2-laden alveolar macrophages can cause cell proliferation in the alveoli and mammary gland and suggest that TiO2 tumor promotion is mediated by MIP1α acting locally in the alveoli and distantly in the mammary gland after transport via the circulation.

Journal Article.  6590 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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