Journal Article

Poor early growth and excessive adult calorie intake independently and additively affect mitogenic signaling and increase mammary tumor susceptibility

D. S. Fernandez-Twinn, S. Ekizoglou, M. S. Martin-Gronert, J. Tarry-Adkins, A. P. Wayman, M. J. Warner, J.-A. Luan, B. A. Gusterson and S. E. Ozanne

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 31, issue 10, pages 1873-1881
Published in print October 2010 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online May 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgq095
Poor early growth and excessive adult calorie intake independently and additively affect mitogenic signaling and increase mammary tumor susceptibility

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We previously showed that offspring of rat dams receiving a protein-restricted (low protein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation develop mammary tumors more quickly. Rapid post-weaning mammary growth and mammary tissue overexpression of insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), estrogen receptor isoform alpha and v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB2), correlated with this risk. The objectives of this study were therefore (i) to identify underlying mechanisms of increased risk through candidate and global approaches; (ii) to determine if excessive calorie intake further increased risk and if so, (iii) to identify the molecular mechanisms mediating this. We provide evidence for transcriptional upregulation of IGF-1R by Sp1 in LP mammary tissue (P < 0.01). Cell cycle control and DNA damage repair gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) (p21waf1) was also upregulated (P < 0.05) as was transcription factor nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cell (P < 0.05) and adhesion gene CDH1 (P < 0.05). Invasion and metastasis markers matrix metalloproteinase 9 and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 1 (SERPIN1) were upregulated (both P < 0.05), whereas metastasis suppressor gene NME1 was downregulated (P < 0.01). Feeding a highly palatable diet (HPD) to increase calorie intake from puberty, additively and independently increased early mammary tumor risk, which correlated with increased serum insulin and triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.05). PTEN gene expression was reduced both by early protein restriction (P < 0.05) and HPD (P < 0.01), which may induce Akt in cell survival pathways. Progesterone receptor and ERBB2 (both P < 0.05) expression increased as an effect of an interaction between maternal diet and adult nutrition, with subsequent downstream activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We conclude that poor early growth and excessive calorie intake exert independent and additive effects on mitogenic growth factor signaling to influence mammary tumor susceptibility.

Journal Article.  6234 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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