Journal Article

Inhibition of lung carcinogenesis and critical cancer-related signaling pathways by <i>N</i>-acetyl-<i>S</i>-(<i>N</i>-2-phenethylthiocarbamoyl)-l-cysteine, indole-3-carbinol and <i>myo</i>-inositol, alone and in combination

Fekadu Kassie, Tamene Melkamu, Abaineh Endalew, Pramod Upadhyaya, Xianghua Luo and Stephen S. Hecht

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 31, issue 9, pages 1634-1641
Published in print September 2010 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online July 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI:
Inhibition of lung carcinogenesis and critical cancer-related signaling pathways by N-acetyl-S-(N-2-phenethylthiocarbamoyl)-l-cysteine, indole-3-carbinol and myo-inositol, alone and in combination

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In an extension of our earlier studies, we examined the inhibitory effects of N-acetyl-S-(N-2-phenethylthiocarbamoyl)-l-cysteine (PEITC-NAC), myo-inositol (MI) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) or 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), alone and in combination, on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) plus benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced A/J mouse lung tumorigenesis and proliferation of A549 cells and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and relevant potential mechanisms. Mice treated with NNK plus BaP and fed non-supplemented diet had 13.0 ± 4.1 lung tumors per mouse. Dietary feeding of mice with PEITC-NAC (5 μmol/g diet), I3C (5 μmol/g diet) or MI (56 μmol/g diet), beginning at 50% in the carcinogen treatment phase, significantly reduced tumor multiplicity to 8.2 ± 2.0, 8.4 ± 1.5 and 6.8 ± 1.7 tumors per mouse, respectively. In mice given combinations of the chemopreventive agents, lung tumor multiplicity was significantly reduced to 6.3 ± 2.2, 4.9 ± 1.8, 4.8 ± 1.9 and 3.6 ± 1.4 by PEITC-NAC plus I3C, PEITC-NAC plus MI, I3C plus MI or PEITC-NAC plus I3C plus MI, respectively. Post-carcinogen administration of combinations of the agents also caused significant but weaker effects. Assessment of the anti-proliferative effects of the individual agents or their combinations showed significant reductions in the proliferation of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-pretreated HBEC (reduction by 30–41% at 48 h and 41–58% at 72 h) and A549 cells (30–43% at 48 h and 40–59% at 72 h), but not in dimethyl sulfoxide-pretreated HBEC. Combinatorial treatment with the agents also caused marked reductions in the activation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB in lung tumor tissues, CSC-pretreated HBEC and A549 cells. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated the promise of combinations of PEITC-NAC, I3C/DIM and MI for the chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis in current and former smokers.

Journal Article.  6455 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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