Journal Article

Intervention of human breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

Shambhunath Choudhary, Shilpa Sood, Robert L. Donnell and Hwa-Chain R. Wang

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 33, issue 4, pages 876-885
Published in print April 2012 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online February 2012 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI:
Intervention of human breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics


Show Summary Details


More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as those in the diet, through a multistep disease process progressing from non-cancerous to premalignant and malignant stages. The chemical carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines found in high-temperature cooked meats and is recognized as a mammary carcinogen. However, the PhIP’s mechanism of action in breast cell carcinogenesis is not clear. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that cumulative exposures to PhIP at physiologically achievable, pico to nanomolar concentrations effectively induced progressive carcinogenesis of human breast epithelial MCF10A cells from a non-cancerous stage to premalignant and malignant stages in a dose- and exposure-dependent manner. Progressive carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly- acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, acinar-conformational disruption, proliferation, migration, invasion, tumorigenicity with metastasis and increased stem-like cell populations. These biological changes were accompanied by biochemical and molecular changes, including upregulated H-Ras gene expression, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, Nox-1 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation, increased HIF-1α, Sp1, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and reduced E-cadherin. The Ras-ERK-Nox-ROS pathway played an important role in not only initiation but also maintenance of cellular carcinogenesis induced by PhIP. Using biological, biochemical and molecular changes as targeted endpoints, we identified that the green tea catechin components epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, at non-cytotoxic doses, were capable of suppressing PhIP-induced cellular carcinogenesis and tumorigenicity.

Journal Article.  7831 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.