Journal Article

Hematologic and Biochemical Changes Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection in Jamaica: A Report from the Population-Based Blood Donors Study

Anil K. Chaturvedi, Marianna Wilson, Kolby A. Sanders Lewis, Hormuzd A. Katki, Nicole Urquhart, Michael A. Walters, Wendell Miley, Beverly Cranston, Barrie Hanchard and Michie Hisada

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 45, issue 8, pages 975-982
Published in print October 2007 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online October 2007 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/45.8.975
Hematologic and Biochemical Changes Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection in Jamaica: A Report from the Population-Based Blood Donors Study

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Objective. We investigated changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters associated with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, antibody titer, and provirus load. Additionally, on a subset of participants, we assessed the epidemiologic relationship of HTLV-1 with Strongyloides stercoralis.

Methods. Among volunteer blood donors in Jamaica, HTLV-1 carriers (n = 482) were frequency matched with HTLV-1 negative subjects (n = 355) by age (±5 years), sex, and date of blood donation (±3 months). HTLV-1 antibody titer, provirus load, S. stercoralis IgG antibodies, complete blood cell count, blood chemistry, and urinalysis parameters were measured.

Results. HTLV-1 carriers, compared with HTLV-1–negative individuals, had elevated levels of cleaved lymphocytes (24.5% vs. 16.4%), any lymphocyte abnormalities (atypical, cleaved, and reactive lymphocytes combined, 45.7% vs. 35.4%), and γ-glutamyl transferase levels (21.2 vs. 19.6 IU/L), as well as lower eosinophil count (2.6% vs. 3.1%). Among carriers, HTLV-1 antibody titer (n = 482) was inversely correlated with mean corpuscular volume (r = -0.10) and positively correlated with levels of total protein (r = 0.16), phosphorus (r = 0.12), and lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.24). HTLV-1–provirus load (n = 326) was higher among carriers with cleaved lymphocytes and any lymphocyte abnormalities. Provirus load was inversely correlated with hemoglobin (r = -0.11), mean corpuscular volume (r = -0.15), neutrophil (r = -0.12), and eosinophil (r = -0.19) levels and was positively correlated with lactate dehydrogenase levels (r = 0.12). Provirus load was significantly higher among male than female subjects. S. stercoralis antibodies were detected in 35 (12.1%) of 288 participants but were not associated with HTLV-1 status, antibody titer, or provirus load.

Conclusions. Markers of HTLV-1 infection (infection status, antibody titer, and provirus load) are associated with hematologic and biochemical alterations, such as lymphocyte abnormalities, anemia, decreased eosinophils, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels.

Journal Article.  4225 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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