Journal Article

A 3-year follow-up study of various types of orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers

Jon Årtun, Agnes T. Spadafora and Peter A. Shapiro

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 19, issue 5, pages 501-509
Published in print October 1997 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online October 1997 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
A 3-year follow-up study of various types of orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers

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The present study was performed to test the tendency for plaque and calculus build-up along the wire of different types of bonded orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers, whether the presence of such retainers causes any damage to the teeth involved, the failure rate of the retainers, and any changes in incisor alignment during a 3-year period of retention. The four test groups received either retainers made of thick plain wire bonded only to the canines (n = 11); thick spiral wire bonded only to the canines (n = 13); thin, flexible spiral wire bonded to each tooth (n = 11); or removable retainers (n = 14). Accumulation of plaque and calculus along the gingival margin, gingival inflammation and probing attachment level were scored in lingual areas from canine to canine at the time of fixed appliance removal and again 3 years after retainer insertion. Incisor irregularity was measured on plaster models made at the same time periods. Accumulation of plaque and calculus and development of caries along the wire were scored at follow-up. Retainer failures were recorded whenever they occurred. The results revealed no intergroup differences in changes between baseline and follow-up examinations or status along the retainer wire for any of the variables. Gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation were scored less frequently after 3 years in retention than at the time of debonding. No signs of caries were seen adjacent to the wire. Failures were observed of one, four and three of the fixed retainer types, respectively. These patients showed a greater increase in incisor irregularity than the other patients.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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