Journal Article

Effect of cytochalasin D on articular cartilage cell phenotype and shape in long-term organ culture

P Pirttiniemi and T Kantomaa

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 20, issue 5, pages 491-499
Published in print October 1998 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online October 1998 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/20.5.491
Effect of cytochalasin D on articular cartilage cell phenotype and shape in long-term organ culture

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It has been documented, on the basis of cell culture experiments, that cytochalasin treatment promotes a round cell shape in chondroblast cultures by altering the cytoskeleton, and that it simultaneously alters the balance between production of type I and type II collagens. The aim in this study was to monitor the deposition of pro-type-I and type II collagens, and possible changes in articular cartilage layers in the mandibular condyle of the mouse under the influence of Cytochalasin D (CD) when total cranio-mandibular joints of 5-day-old mice were cultured in one block. The experimental group comprised 20 Balb/c mice of both sexes. Twenty in vitro controls were cultured without the administration of cytochalasin. The mice in the third group were used as in vivo controls.

The cells in the prechondroblast layer responded with a rapid change in shape when treated with CD and assumed a rounded morphology. The total thickness of the cell layer was reduced at 7 days. Immunostaining against pro-type-I collagen was intense in the narrow fibrous and prechondroblast layers in the CD-treated group, whereas the stained area was wider and the staining gradually reduced in the deeper cartilage layers in the in vitro controls. Staining against type II collagen became weaker at the end of the culturing period of the CD-treated group, whereas in the in vitro controls the staining against type II collagen was clearly visible at all observation times. These phenomena can be explained by changes in differentiation and the altered cell cycle of the chondroblasts in organ culture under the influence of CD.

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Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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