Journal Article

The retraction of upper incisors with the PG retraction system

M Dinç, A Gülsen and T Türk

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 22, issue 1, pages 33-41
Published in print February 2000 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online February 2000 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
The retraction of upper incisors with the PG retraction system

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the dentoalveolar structures of the application of PG springs for retraction of upper incisors and to compare the outcome with the effect of a closed coil spring retraction system.

Thirty-six subjects with Angle Class I or Class II malocclusions were selected for the study. Each subject had the two upper first premolars extracted and presented a symmetrical extraction space of at least 3 mm distal to the lateral incisors after canine retraction. The subjects were divided into two groups, the PG group with 17 subjects and the coil group with 19 patients. One group had the incisors retracted by PG universal retraction springs, whereas in the other a closed coil spring system was used. The average chronological ages were 18 years 4 months for the PG group, and 18 years 7 months for the coil group. In both groups the springs were activated to produce an initial force of 150 g per side. To examine the type of movement of the anterior and posterior teeth, and the time and rate of space closure, 20 parameters were measured and evaluated statistically with Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests.

In both groups the incisor retraction was accompanied by mesial movement of the buccal segments. Distal movement of the root apex of the incisors was observed in both groups, although more pronounced in the PG group (P<0.01). A significant incisor intrusion resulting in a decrease in overbite was found in the PG group, whereas the deep bite increased significantly in the coil spring group. The PG spring produced a three-dimensional control in the movement of the upper incisors, so that application of additional intrusive mechanics after completion of the incisor retraction became unnecessary.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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