Journal Article

Ultrastructure of cementum and periodontal ligament after continuous intrusion in humans: a transmission electron microscopy study

RM Faltin, K Faltin, FG Sander and VE Arana-Chavez

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 23, issue 1, pages 35-49
Published in print February 2001 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online February 2001 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/23.1.35
Ultrastructure of cementum and periodontal ligament after continuous intrusion in humans: a transmission electron microscopy study

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An ultrastructural study of the cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL) changes after continuous intrusion with two different and controlled forces in humans was carried out.

Twelve first upper premolars, at stage 10 of Nolla, orthodontically indicated for extraction from six patients (mean age 15.3) were used. They were divided into three experimental groups, distributed intra-individually as follows: control (not moved), continuously intruded for 4 weeks with 50 or 100 cN force, utilizing a precise biomechanical model with nickel titanium super-elastic wires (NiTi-SE), which were developed and calibrated individually. The teeth were extracted, fixed, decalcified, and conventionally processed for examination in a Jeol 100 CX II transmission electron microscope.

Evident signs of degeneration of cell structures, vascular components, and extracellular matrix (EM) of cementum and PDL were observed in all the intruded teeth, with more severe changes towards an apical direction and in proportion to the magnitude of force applied. Resorptive areas and an irregular root surface of the intruded teeth were noticed, according to the same pattern described above. Concomitant, areas of repair were also revealed in the cementum and PDL although the magnitude of forces remained the same throughout the experimental period. Thus, a reduction of continuous force magnitude should be considered to preserve the integrity of tissues.

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Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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