Journal Article

Three‐dimensional analysis of endosseous palatal implants and bones after vertical, horizontal, and diagonal force application

T. Gedrange, C. Bourauel, C. Köbel and W. Harzer

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 25, issue 2, pages 109-115
Published in print April 2003 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online April 2003 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Three‐dimensional analysis of endosseous palatal implants and bones after vertical, horizontal, and diagonal force application

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  • Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics


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The effects of bite and orthodontic forces exerted on endosseous palatal implants are not completely understood. This applies especially to the biomechanical properties inherent in the different implant geometries and resulting bone remodelling reactions on the one hand, and to the influence on the direction and magnitude of the applied forces on the other. The results of this study should help in the selection of implants for clinical use.

Three types of endosseous implants (all 9 mm in length and 3.3 mm in diameter, made of titanium) were used for this investigation. Type 1 was a simple, cylinder‐shaped implant; type 2 a cylinder‐shaped implant with a superperiosteal step; and type 3 a cylinder‐shaped implant, subperiosteally threaded, with a superperiosteal step. The load on the implant was investigated under three conditions of bite and orthodontic forces from 0.01 to 100 N (vertically, horizontally, and diagonally). The study results were calculated by means of a finite element (FE) method.

Vertical loading caused bone deformation of more than 600 µeps at the simple implant. The largest deformations at this load were found in the trabecular bone with all three implant geometries. However, trabecular bone deformation was reduced by a superperiosteal step. Horizontal loading of the implants shifted the deformation from the trabecular to the cortical bone. Furthermore, a large deformation was measured at the transition from cortical to trabecular bone. The smallest deformations (less than 300 µeps) were found for implants with a superperiosteal step and diagonal loading (type 2). The use of threads provided no improvement in loading capacity.

All implant types investigated showed good biomechanical properties. However, endosseous implants with a superperiosteal step had the best biomechanical properties under low loads. Thus, the trend should be to optimize the design of implants by producing small implants with additional anchorage on the bone surface.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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