Journal Article

Size and shape measurement in contemporary cephalometrics

Grant T. McIntyre and Peter A. Mossey

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 25, issue 3, pages 231-242
Published in print June 2003 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online June 2003 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Size and shape measurement in contemporary cephalometrics

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The traditional method of analysing cephalograms—conventional cephalometric analysis (CCA)—involves the calculation of linear distance measurements, angular measurements, area measurements, and ratios. Because shape information cannot be determined from these ‘size‐based’ measurements, an increasing number of studies employ geometric morphometric tools in the cephalometric analysis of craniofacial morphology. Most of the discussions surrounding the appropriateness of CCA, Procrustes superimposition, Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA), thin‐plate spline analysis (TPS), finite element morphometry (FEM), elliptical Fourier functions (EFF), and medial axis analysis (MAA) have centred upon mathematical and statistical arguments. Surprisingly, little information is available to assist the orthodontist in the clinical relevance of each technique. This article evaluates the advantages and limitations of the above methods currently used to analyse the craniofacial morphology on cephalograms and investigates their clinical relevance and possible applications.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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