Journal Article

<i>In vitro</i> cytotoxicity of orthodontic archwires in cortical cell cultures

Alexis David and Doug Lobner

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 26, issue 4, pages 421-426
Published in print August 2004 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online August 2004 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
In vitro cytotoxicity of orthodontic archwires in cortical cell cultures

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There have been a number of studies regarding the toxicity of orthodontic archwires, but little is known concerning the mechanism of their toxicity. This investigation used murine cortical cell cultures to examine the in vitro neurotoxicity of commonly used orthodontic metallic archwire alloys. The materials examined included 0.016 inch nickel-titanium (NiTi), copper-nickel-titanium, titaniummolybdenum, Elgiloy, and stainless steel archwire alloys. Standard sized samples of each material were placed on tissue culture inserts suspended above the cell cultures. Neuronal death was determined using the lactate dehydrogenase release assay 24 hours after exposure to the archwires.

The results indicated that NiTi, copper-nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloys were not neurotoxic, while stainless steel and Elgiloy were significantly toxic. Washing the archwires for 7 days in a saline solution did not alter the toxicity. However, the free radical scavenger, trolox, blocked the toxicity of both stainless steel and Elgiloy, indicating that the death was free radical mediated. The caspase inhibitor, Z-VAl-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-FMK), blocked the toxicity of stainless steel, but not Elgiloy, suggesting that stainless steel induced apoptosis. Further evidence that stainless steel induced apoptosis was provided by propidium staining which showed nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation into discrete spherical or irregular shapes, characteristic of apoptosis. The specific metal responsible for the toxicity was not determined; the metals common to each of the toxic archwires were nickel, iron, and chromium.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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