Journal Article

Factors affecting friction in the pre-adjusted appliance

M. M. Moore, E. Harrington and W. P. Rock

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 26, issue 6, pages 579-583
Published in print December 2004 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online December 2004 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Factors affecting friction in the pre-adjusted appliance

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A jig was constructed to measure the frictional forces created by various tip and torque values in association with two types of straightwire bracket moving along tainless steel (SS) archwires. Forces were measured during translation of the bracket using an Instron machine. Steel and cobalt chromium brackets were tested in association with 0.019 × 0.025 and 0.021 × 0.025 inch steel archwires at tips from 0 to 3 degrees and torque values in 2 degree increments from 0 to 6 degrees.

The mean values for static (2.2 N) and kinetic (2.1 N) friction were very similar (P = 0.71), as were the overall friction values for stainless steel (2.1 N) and chromium cobalt (2.2 N) brackets of similar dimensions (P = 0.44). Use of 0.021 × 0.025 inch wire produced three times as much friction as 0.019 × 0.025 inch wire, 3.0 N against 1.2 N (P < 0.01). Increased tip and torque were associated with highly significant increases in friction (P < 0.01). Every degree of tip produced approximately twice as much friction as comparable torque. The main conclusion of the study was that space closure should be completed on a 0.019 × 0.025 inch archwire before a 0.021 × 0.025 inch wire is used to complete tooth alignment.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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