Journal Article

Morphology of Singapore Chinese

P. Yeong and J. Huggare

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 26, issue 6, pages 605-612
Published in print December 2004 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online December 2004 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Morphology of Singapore Chinese

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The aims of this study were to provide a description of the craniofacial morphology of Singaporean Chinese children and to compare gender differences.

Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained of 81 Singaporean Chinese children (31 boys and 50 girls; mean age 12.7 and 12.5 years, respectively, standard deviation = 0.7) with Class I incisor relationships. The radiographs were traced and 27 hard and soft tissue cephalometric landmarks digitized. Fourteen linear and 13 angular cephalometric variables were obtained using the Neodigiplot™ computerized cephalometric analysis software.

A comparison of the genders showed that girls had greater maxillary and mandibular protrusion, but the upper and lower incisor inclinations were reduced. In addition, girls showed reduced facial convexity and reduced upper lip prominence. Pogonion to nasion perpendicular was greater for boys. Although not statistically significant, the values of intermaxillary protrusion and Wits showed a tendency for the girls towards a Class III skeletal base. The boys also had statistically significantly longer cranial base lengths, and anterior and posterior face heights.

Overall, the results reflect gender differences in both angular and linear cephalometric craniofacial measurements, which should be taken into account when establishing cephalometric reference data for Singaporean Chinese children.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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